Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan

The Republic of Kazakhstan (English: The Republic of Kazakstan: sluglike breaks sluglike c 2.90μm sluglike Р02?? y c pi sigma. je 'kappa alpha c hallux), is a landlocked country of South Asia, as well as the largest land - locked.The Research on Kazak Ethnic Group Striding Over the name from its main body., part of the former Soviet republic, declared independence on 16 December 1991.Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Iran, Azerbaijan across the Caspian Sea across the country is ranked as the ninth of the world.Before the 16th century, the territory of Kazakhstan is the life of the nomadic Turkic peoples, until the early 18th century, the Russian Empire annexed throughout the territory of the Kazakh, Kazakhstan became a colony of Imperial Russia, Kazakhstan and Russia in recent years to strengthen the Eastern countries, such as economic, political and military integration, on January 1, 2015, with Russia, Belarus, Armenia and other countries in the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union.

Geographical Description

The world's largest landlocked country, Kazakhstan covers an area of 272 million square kilometers, accounting for about 2 percent of the earth's land area, territorial span both asia The world's largest landlocked country, Kazakhstan covers an area of 272 million square kilometers, accounting for about 2 percent of the earth's land area, territorial span both asia . country now exceeds 1.05 400,000km
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea can be reached via Azerbaijan and Iran, through the Volga, the Don Canal can reach the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea territory Kazakhstan Caspian Sea can be reached via Azerbaijan and Iran, through the Volga, the Don Canal can reach the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea territory . .
To the southeast are ranked as the world's ninth in China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, to the north by Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, which borders To the southeast are ranked as the world's ninth in China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, to the north by Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, which borders . area 272. 49 square kilometers and a population of 18 million,
, 131 ethnic groups.There are mainly Kazakh accounted for 67 per cent, accounting for 20% of Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbek, Tatar and other ethnic Germans and Kazakh is the national language, Russian is the official Kazakh is the national language, Russian is the official .
most residents believe in Islam, and Orthodox, Christianity, Buddhism, etc most residents believe in Islam, and Orthodox, Christianity, Buddhism, etc . the capital Astana, 2А c 2.90μm sluglike??) are formed, with a population of 110 million
maximum temperature was 35 C 36 C and the lowest - 40 deg.Historically, there have been a record of 52 - c State President Nursultan A. Nazarbayev, Abby Milosevic (CНТ р y c y л 2.90μm sluglike?? 2А 3б maps of today and the inertia effect of the dose area product is alpha alpha 'В95п.ч breaks р 3б sluglike effect), on 1 December 1991 election after the first president of independent Republic of Kazakhstan, in April 1995, the entire contents of which being a referendum to give the date as 2000
10 January 1999 to hold early presidential elections in 2005 and re - elected for 10 January 1999 to hold early presidential elections in 2005 and re - elected for . 4 December ahead of the presidential election to be held in the re - nomination 4 December ahead of the presidential election to be held in the re - nomination .
important New Year holidays: 1 January; the Ulu - o - Festival (Spring Festival):On 22 March; Fatherland Day: May 7; Victory Day: May 9; Constitution Day: 8 / 30 /; date: October 25; Independence Day (National Day), December 16 in addition to important New Year holidays: 1 January; the Ulu - o - Festival (Spring Festival):On 22 March; Fatherland Day: May 7; Victory Day: May 9; Constitution Day: 8 / 30 /; date: October 25; Independence Day (National Day), December 16 in addition to ., , .
Islamic holiday of Eid al - Adha or the like when the zone 6 hours earlier than GMT; 2 hours later than beijing eastern, Midwest Late 3 - 4 hours Islamic holiday of Eid al - Adha or the like when the zone 6 hours earlier than GMT; 2 hours later than beijing eastern, Midwest Late 3 - 4 hours .
Kazakhstan

A Basic Overview

Country Names And Their Definitions

the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: sluglike breaks sluglike c 2.90μm sluglike Р02?? y c pi sigma. je 'kappa alpha c hallux; Russian: Р02 c pi sigma je y' kappa alpha К sluglike breaks sluglike 640x c 2.90μm sluglike??; English: Republic), which form the rudiments of the bourgeois governments of the autonomous republic is Araş Kazakh word in Slavic explanation is" escapee "detachment", is a branch of ancient Turkic peoples lineal Kazakh word in Slavic explanation is" escapee "detachment", is a branch of ancient Turkic peoples lineal .
name came from its main ethnic name came from its main ethnic . "Kazakh steppe sub"the name first appeared in the 6th to 7th century of the Roman and Persian literature in "Kazakh steppe sub"the name first appeared in the 6th to 7th century of the Roman and Persian literature in .
Constantine's reign his son of the noted in his will: " in that the peripheral has a submicron Kazakh steppes, another Kazakh, was Alan " ancient Kazakhs" used to refer to this generation of ancient Central Asian nomadic tribes, such as UNFICYP, the Wusun, Rouzhi, etc and these ancient nomadic ancestors of modern Kazakhs
Kazakhstan

Flies The Flag Of The People's Republic Of China

Kazakhstan's flag was a rectangular shape, as the male eagle banner, long and wide ratio is 2: 1 Kazakhstan's flag was a rectangular shape, as the male eagle banner, long and wide ratio is 2: 1 . flag is blue, the intermediate is a red flag highlighted by a golden sun., under which there is a flying eagle
flag pole side there is a vertical bar, a traditional Kazakh gold pattern of the pattern represent light blue flag pole side there is a vertical bar, a traditional Kazakh gold pattern of the pattern represent light blue . Kazakh is Turk; pattern Chang in the Kazakh ethnic minority of carpet, clothing, and Kazakhstan in December 1991 of the post - independence flag adopted this Kazakh is Turk; pattern Chang in the Kazakh ethnic minority of carpet, clothing, and Kazakhstan in December 1991 of the post - independence flag adopted this .

National Emblem

Kazakhstan national emblem is circular surface which is to be Kazak Kazakhstan national emblem is circular surface which is to be Kazak . round felt tents of dome pattern on both sides, 4 LPM on the horse, the upper end is a pentagram, the lower end of the lace on the Kazakh "Kazakhstan" round felt tents of dome pattern on both sides, 4 LPM on the horse, the upper end is a pentagram, the lower end of the lace on the Kazakh "Kazakhstan" .

Guohua

Tulip; Kazakh territory in all seasons tulips are open, which is also the national flower of Kazakh celebrate Christmas as an important reason for the Tulip; Kazakh territory in all seasons tulips are open, which is also the national flower of Kazakh celebrate Christmas as an important reason for the .

Capital

In 1824, a group formed by Russian Cossack troops departure of Omsk in Siberia on the banks of the River Ishim has built a castle, later became Akmolinsk In 1824, a group formed by Russian Cossack troops departure of Omsk in Siberia on the banks of the River Ishim has built a castle, later became Akmolinsk . at the beginning of the 20th century, Astana became Kazakhstan's railway hub, also bring economic influence as Astana at the beginning of the 20th century, Astana became Kazakhstan's railway hub, also bring economic influence as Astana .
in the Stalin period, Kazakhstan has 11 camps, most notorious of Astana is located in the vicinity, is dedicated to Stalin on the politics of the enemies of the wife and husband for in the Stalin period, Kazakhstan has 11 camps, most notorious of Astana is located in the vicinity, is dedicated to Stalin on the politics of the enemies of the wife and husband for . to 1961 under the name of the city of Astana to 1961 under the name of the city of Astana .
Tselinograd became the center of the movement in the wastelands,Astana's goal is to get the Soviet Union's second - largest food producer in Tselinograd became the center of the movement in the wastelands,Astana's goal is to get the Soviet Union's second - largest food producer in . reclamation movement when there are a large number of immigrants moved to Astana, while most of the migrants is Russ reclamation movement when there are a large number of immigrants moved to Astana, while most of the migrants is Russ .
Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, the city renamed the Akmola (white graves) Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, the city renamed the Akmola (white graves) . in 1995, to ensure that the ethnic Russian majority areas of northern Kazakhstan, the Government of Kazakhstan to prepare for the new capital of Akmola in 1995, to ensure that the ethnic Russian majority areas of northern Kazakhstan, the Government of Kazakhstan to prepare for the new capital of Akmola .
1997, Kazakhstan had moved the capital from Almaty to Akmola, and now re - named Astana, Almaty, Kazakhstan 1997, Kazakhstan had moved the capital from Almaty to Akmola, and now re - named Astana, Almaty, Kazakhstan . government in the capital is still a lot of trouble,For example in Almaty earthquake risks, expansion of the land is not convenient, Almaty, also from the Kyrgyz border was too close to the Kazakhstan government considered moving the capital seems a better decisions government in the capital is still a lot of trouble,For example in Almaty earthquake risks, expansion of the land is not convenient, Almaty, also from the Kyrgyz border was too close to the Kazakhstan government considered moving the capital seems a better decisions .
but before the end of the island's capital but not about the focus of attention in but before the end of the island's capital but not about the focus of attention in . but many Kazakhs, and they don't agree more but many Kazakhs, and they don't agree more .
views were criticized for Astana in the Kazakhstan steppe on very isolated, so that the traffic is inconvenient, but in the winter when Astana views were criticized for Astana in the Kazakhstan steppe on very isolated, so that the traffic is inconvenient, but in the winter when Astana . actually has a severe climate, the President, decided to move there. The illness emBarrassing to mention can Be First
,The President wants to get rid of the powerful Kazak family relationship constraints ,The President wants to get rid of the powerful Kazak family relationship constraints . Kazakhs since ancient times three Yuzi (large, medium and small three Yuzi), president of yuci from Kazakhs since ancient times three Yuzi (large, medium and small three Yuzi), president of yuci from .
dated 6 May 1998, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev signed an order declaring that the new capital is being renamed Astana Akmola (Kazakh, which means" capital ") in explaining why dated 6 May 1998, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev signed an order declaring that the new capital is being renamed Astana Akmola (Kazakh, which means" capital ") in explaining why . renamed Hassell, the president said, Akmola and representative offices of the municipalities proposed renaming request renamed Hassell, the president said, Akmola and representative offices of the municipalities proposed renaming request .
In addition, media at home and abroad are also often cited negative meanings of the placenames of Akmola (Kazakh, which means" White graves"), which is disadvantageous in terms of establishing the new capital of In addition, media at home and abroad are also often cited negative meanings of the placenames of Akmola (Kazakh, which means" White graves"), which is disadvantageous in terms of establishing the new capital of . images on the same day, he also signed an order,Astana announced consists of two regions, respectively, Sary Arka and Almaty region images on the same day, he also signed an order,Astana announced consists of two regions, respectively, Sary Arka and Almaty region .
10 June 1998, I - - state president jiang zemin sent a greeting message to the Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan's capital Astana to express my warm congratulations to 10 June 1998, I - - state president jiang zemin sent a greeting message to the Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan's capital Astana to express my warm congratulations to .
Kazakhstan

Cultural Introduction

Serendip

the Republic of Kazakhstan (the Republic of Kazakhstan (.) "(Kazakh)" about the word in the 14th century when it appeared in the Turkish and Russian of the documents in the ) "(Kazakh)" about the word in the 14th century when it appeared in the Turkish and Russian of the documents in the .
is the meaning of its wild enchantment, "an independent, Drifters", the Kazakh word in Slavic explanation is" escapee" detachment ", is a branch of ancient Turkic lineal descendants of the Turkic peoples is the meaning of its wild enchantment, "an independent, Drifters", the Kazakh word in Slavic explanation is" escapee" detachment ", is a branch of ancient Turkic lineal descendants of the Turkic peoples . .

Flies The Flag Of The People's Republic Of China

Kazakhstan's flag was a rectangular shape, long and wide ratio is 2: 1 Kazakhstan's flag was a rectangular shape, long and wide ratio is 2: 1 . flag is blue, the intermediate is a red flag highlighted by a golden sun., under which there is a flying eagle
flag pole side there is a vertical bar, a traditional Kazakh gold pattern of the pattern light blue flag pole side there is a vertical bar, a traditional Kazakh gold pattern of the pattern light blue . is the Kazakh people's traditional colours and patterns, often in the Kazakh ethnic minority of carpet, clothing, and it shows the wisdom of the Kazakh people are clever and is the Kazakh people's traditional colours and patterns, often in the Kazakh ethnic minority of carpet, clothing, and it shows the wisdom of the Kazakh people are clever and .
golden sun symbolizing light and warmth, the eagle symbolizes bravery golden sun symbolizing light and warmth, the eagle symbolizes bravery . Kazakhstan in December 1991 of the post - independence flag adopted this Kazakhstan in December 1991 of the post - independence flag adopted this .

National Emblem

Kazakhstan national emblem is circular surface which is to be Kazak Kazakhstan national emblem is circular surface which is to be Kazak . round felt tents of dome pattern on both sides, 4 LPM on the horse, the upper end is a pentagram, the lower end of the lace on the Kazakh "Kazakhstan" national flower: tulips (Liliaceae) state dignitaries: President Nursultan A. Nazarbayev, Abby Milosevic nursultan nazarbayev, in December 1991, Kazakhstan became the first president after independence, in January 1999 and re - elected for a term of office 2006
population: 1800 million population: 1800 million . Kazakhstan is a multi - ethnic country,131 by ethnic groups, mainly the latter (67%), Russians (20%), ethnic Germans, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Uygur and Tatar Kazakhstan is a multi - ethnic country,131 by ethnic groups, mainly the latter (67%), Russians (20%), ethnic Germans, Ukrainian, Uzbek, Uygur and Tatar .
residents believe in Islam (mostly Sunni), Orthodox, Christian, Buddhist and Kazakh residents believe in Islam (mostly Sunni), Orthodox, Christian, Buddhist and Kazakh . is the national language, Russian is the organ of a State and local self - government with the Kazakh is the official language for is the national language, Russian is the organ of a State and local self - government with the Kazakh is the official language for .
Administrative Districts: The country is divided into 2 municipalities and 14 counties, respectively: the cities of Astana and Almaty, Kazakhstan's northern states, Costa Nai states, states in Pavlodar, Akmola, Kazakhstan's state,Stan states in Eastern Kazakhstan, Atyrau, Aktyubinsk Oblast, Karaganda, Mangghystau oblysy, Ke Zi of Dazhou, talas, in Almaty, South Kazakhstan oblast capital Administrative Districts: The country is divided into 2 municipalities and 14 counties, respectively: the cities of Astana and Almaty, Kazakhstan's northern states, Costa Nai states, states in Pavlodar, Akmola, Kazakhstan's state,Stan states in Eastern Kazakhstan, Atyrau, Aktyubinsk Oblast, Karaganda, Mangghystau oblysy, Ke Zi of Dazhou, talas, in Almaty, South Kazakhstan oblast capital . Stan: Astana (), with a population of 31 million Stan: Astana (), with a population of 31 million .
formerly Aqmola (Astana), of 10 December 1997, the launch of the "stans) became the capital, on May 6, 1998) 395 - 5107; fax ( formerly Aqmola (Astana), of 10 December 1997, the launch of the "stans) became the capital, on May 6, 1998) 395 - 5107; fax (. currency: Tenge (aka Chinese tango,Danglars currency: Tenge (aka Chinese tango,Danglars .
yuan) with a ratio of approximately 100 tenge = RMB yuan) with a ratio of approximately 100 tenge = RMB . 6 it was initiated in November 1993, replacing the Russian ruble 6 it was initiated in November 1993, replacing the Russian ruble .
geographical area is 272. 49 square kilometers for the landlocked countries in Central Asia, the Caspian Sea in the west, is the world's largest landlocked country in southeast China's Xinjiang 49 square kilometers for the landlocked countries in Central Asia, the Caspian Sea in the west, is the world's largest landlocked country in southeast China's Xinjiang .
connected, to the north by Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, which borders connected, to the north by Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, which borders . as multi - plain and lowland as multi - plain and lowland .
belongs to continental climate, with January average temperature is 19 C - to C - 4,July average temperature of 19 C to 26 C belongs to continental climate, with January average temperature is 19 C - to C - 4,July average temperature of 19 C to 26 C . in the southwest belongs to Turan Lowland and in the southwest belongs to Turan Lowland and .
in the Caspian Sea coastal lowlands, eastern Kazakhstan belongs to hilly, mountainous eastern in the Caspian Sea coastal lowlands, eastern Kazakhstan belongs to hilly, mountainous eastern . semi - desert, desert terrain throughout the area accounted for about 60% semi - desert, desert terrain throughout the area accounted for about 60% .
. temperate continental climate of the plain area of annual precipitation is about 100 - 300 mm, the mountains up to 800 - 1,500 mm temperate continental climate of the plain area of annual precipitation is about 100 - 300 mm, the mountains up to 800 - 1,500 mm .
. scarce river main rivers are the Irtysh (China) in the upstream, the Syr Darya, the Ili and Chuhe river etc etc have scarce river main rivers are the Irtysh (China) in the upstream, the Syr Darya, the Ili and Chuhe river etc etc have .
. lake Balkhash copper, lead, zinc, chromium - rich, as well as coal, iron, oil, natural gas, bauxite,apatite like lake Balkhash copper, lead, zinc, chromium - rich, as well as coal, iron, oil, natural gas, bauxite,apatite like .
time 5 hours earlier than GMT; 3 hours later than Beijing Time publication to the end of 2000, there were a total of 2,500 news media, distributed over 1,500 types of newspapers, radio, television and other electronic media 600, various news agencies 15 time 5 hours earlier than GMT; 3 hours later than Beijing Time publication to the end of 2000, there were a total of 2,500 news media, distributed over 1,500 types of newspapers, radio, television and other electronic media 600, various news agencies 15 . 's major newspapers: "Kazakhstan Pravda", "sovereign Kazakhstan (Kazakh)," Panorama "(weekly), the" Weekly "and" caravan weekly " 's major newspapers: "Kazakhstan Pravda", "sovereign Kazakhstan (Kazakh)," Panorama "(weekly), the" Weekly "and" caravan weekly ".
owned by the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and broadcasting of radio and television stations, broadcasting in Russian accounted for over 80 per cent of national state - run radio owned by the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, and broadcasting of radio and television stations, broadcasting in Russian accounted for over 80 per cent of national state - run radio . 2 wastewater treatment plants, a total of four programs,a day - time nearly 80 hours 2 wastewater treatment plants, a total of four programs,a day - time nearly 80 hours .
3 national state - run television 20 and a plurality of local government and an unofficial commercial television station broadcast Russian television stations and nine daily program 3 national state - run television 20 and a plurality of local government and an unofficial commercial television station broadcast Russian television stations and nine daily program . "Kazakhstan News Agency" is the only national news agency "Kazakhstan News Agency" is the only national news agency .
idns abbreviations. kz 7 long distance code
Kazakhstan

Geographical Environment

Natural

Kazakhstan has an area of 272 million square kilometers, of Earth surface area 2%, equivalent to the sum of the areas throughout Western Europe Kazakhstan has an area of 272 million square kilometers, of Earth surface area 2%, equivalent to the sum of the areas throughout Western Europe . territories across Asia, residents in the city of Atyrau in Kazakhstan to travel between the two continents territories across Asia, residents in the city of Atyrau in Kazakhstan to travel between the two continents .
territory from western Europe to the Altai Mountains east of the Volga downstream 3000 km long, from north of the West Siberian Plain to the south of the Tianshan Mountains, 1700 km wide territory from western Europe to the Altai Mountains east of the Volga downstream 3000 km long, from north of the West Siberian Plain to the south of the Tianshan Mountains, 1700 km wide . country now exceeded 105 km, of which more than 1200 km overland borders the Caspian Sea through Kazakhstan country now exceeded 105 km, of which more than 1200 km overland borders the Caspian Sea through Kazakhstan .
can reach Azerbaijan and Iran, through the Volga,Don Canal can reach the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea area, the world's ninth row can reach Azerbaijan and Iran, through the Volga,Don Canal can reach the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea area, the world's ninth row ., which is in the middle of a large Eurasian countries , which is in the middle of a large Eurasian countries .
inland sea in the west and the Caspian Sea, southeast China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, to the north by Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, which borders the territory of the inland sea in the west and the Caspian Sea, southeast China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, to the north by Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, which borders the territory of the . - - .
lowland plains and Kazakhstan, plus the complex terrain is high in the southeast and low in the northwest, most of the territory is mostly plains and lowlands of the western and southwestern lower lowland plains and Kazakhstan, plus the complex terrain is high in the southeast and low in the northwest, most of the territory is mostly plains and lowlands of the western and southwestern lower . .
Caspian Lowland south towards the Caspian direction gradually decreases, along the Caspian Sea "zone up to 28 metres below sea level; the lowest point of Cala Chiesa basin 132 metres below sea level - - - - - - - Caspian Lowland south towards the Caspian direction gradually decreases, along the Caspian Sea "zone up to 28 metres below sea level; the lowest point of Cala Chiesa basin 132 metres below sea level - - - - - - - . Nan to come,forming at an altitude of 200 ~ 300 meters to the ravages of Steele and Mangles Clark Peninsula in the Karatau mountains, mountains (Aktau, at an elevation of about 555 meters) Nan to come,forming at an altitude of 200 ~ 300 meters to the ravages of Steele and Mangles Clark Peninsula in the Karatau mountains, mountains (Aktau, at an elevation of about 555 meters) .
in the north - east of the country with the Turanian plateau, it from the north - central Kazakhstan to Kazakh hills gradually transition to the southeast of the Tian Shan extends in the north - east of the country with the Turanian plateau, it from the north - central Kazakhstan to Kazakh hills gradually transition to the southeast of the Tian Shan extends . in the north, the plains of Western Siberia and the Kazakh hills on the southern margin of Kazakhstan in the north, the plains of Western Siberia and the Kazakh hills on the southern margin of Kazakhstan .
connected together of east and southeast are the mountains and the intermontane basins of the mountain, standing here in the Altai Mountains, Taishan, Dzhungarskiy Alatau, outer Ili Alatau, connected together of east and southeast are the mountains and the intermontane basins of the mountain, standing here in the Altai Mountains, Taishan, Dzhungarskiy Alatau, outer Ili Alatau,. Altai Mountain Tianshan etc in the territory of Kazakhstan is divided into north and south to Altai and Altai Mountains, the altitude between 2600 ~ 2300 meters above sea level, its summit Belukha, peak elevation of 4506 metres Altai Mountain Tianshan etc in the territory of Kazakhstan is divided into north and south to Altai and Altai Mountains, the altitude between 2600 ~ 2300 meters above sea level, its summit Belukha, peak elevation of 4506 metres .
Zhungar Alatau Mountains with a total length of 450 km, a width of 100 ~ 350 km, and Koksu is Deborah R. split into Northern and Southern Zhungar Alatau Dzhungarskiy Alatau its highest peak the altitude - - 'Buchan 4464 meters its highest peak the altitude - - 'Buchan 4464 meters .
Trans - Alay Range is located at the southeastern end of Kazakhstan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan and DPRKorea,Its magnificent steep mountains perennially covered with snow and glacier Trans - Alay Range is located at the southeastern end of Kazakhstan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan and DPRKorea,Its magnificent steep mountains perennially covered with snow and glacier . peak, Khan Tengri 0.6995 metres altitude, is also on the territory of Kazakhstan the Kazakhstan peak
belongs to continental climate, with January average temperature is 19 C - to C - 4, July 19 - 26 belongs to continental climate, with January average temperature is 19 C - to C - 4, July 19 - 26 . Northern Kazakhstan natural conditions in central Russia and southern England similar to south of natural conditions and Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean countries of southern Europe similar Northern Kazakhstan natural conditions in central Russia and southern England similar to south of natural conditions and Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean countries of southern Europe similar .
here of tens of meters below the sea level low, and the Rocky Mountains of Mountains, the mountain of snow and glaciers of here of tens of meters below the sea level low, and the Rocky Mountains of Mountains, the mountain of snow and glaciers of . long years without precipitation, north of 300 ~ 500 mm,100 mm back from the desert, the mountains of 1000 ~ 2000 mm long years without precipitation, north of 300 ~ 500 mm,100 mm back from the desert, the mountains of 1000 ~ 2000 mm .
genus Turan Lowland in the southwest and the Caspian Lowland genus Turan Lowland in the southwest and the Caspian Lowland ., eastern Kazakhstan belongs to hilly, mountainous eastern plains , eastern Kazakhstan belongs to hilly, mountainous eastern plains .
. temperate continental climate with annual precipitation of about 300 ~ 500 mm temperate continental climate with annual precipitation of about 300 ~ 500 mm .
Kazakhstan a total size of the overall length of 8. 5, there are a large number of lakes in China, and up to 80,000 have glaciers about 2700, the main bodies of water include Lake Balkhash, WULUNGU etc with Uzbekistan is divided into the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea to the west, the majority of the lake is a saltwater lake Uzbekistan is divided into the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea to the west, the majority of the lake is a saltwater lake .
rivers, most of the other rivers, mainly the Ertix River.Sir (Syrdarya) River valley, Ural, Kazakhstan and the like of the semi - desert and desert mostly are located in the southwest of northern Russia that is similar to that of the natural environment, the more humid north and the Caspian region serves for receiving water from the sea water and the like of the semi - desert and desert mostly are located in the southwest of northern Russia that is similar to that of the natural environment, the more humid north and the Caspian region serves for receiving water from the sea water .
has a temperate continental climate, mountain climate climate type has a temperate continental climate, mountain climate climate type . cold winter and hot summer, but also a snow peak mountains, annual precipitation can reach 1000 mm cold winter and hot summer, but also a snow peak mountains, annual precipitation can reach 1000 mm .
climate areas, a great difference in Astana, the capital, the winter down to -40 DEG C or below, usually with a 4, 5 days of gales, the former capital of Almaty, where temperatures reached - 20 C., very few wind uranium, copper, lead, zinc, chromium is abundant.And coal, iron, oil, natural gas, bauxite, apatite etc
Kazakhstan is often attacked by natural disasters such as Kazakhstan is often attacked by natural disasters such as ., increase the level of the Caspian Sea, seismic, and in terms of the natural disasters of hydrometeorological , increase the level of the Caspian Sea, seismic, and in terms of the natural disasters of hydrometeorological .
beginning in 1978, the Caspian Sea level rise an average of 0. 14 at the rate of increase, has risen nearly 3 meters
Kazakhstan

Resources

Kazakh very rich in natural resources, there are proven reserves Kazakh very rich in natural resources, there are proven reserves . 90 kinds of coal, iron, copper, lead, zinc and large output for use in nuclear fuel and weapons grade uranium production is also the first in the world, is referred to as uranium reservoir ', in addition to the Caspian region for oil and gas natural resources very rich also 90 kinds of coal, iron, copper, lead, zinc and large output for use in nuclear fuel and weapons grade uranium production is also the first in the world, is referred to as uranium reservoir ', in addition to the Caspian region for oil and gas natural resources very rich also .
1984 12570 tons of coal annually, commodity 1984 12570 tons of coal annually, commodity . 2400 tons of iron ore reserves of the world, tungsten, chromium and phosphorus ore in second place with 2400 tons of iron ore reserves of the world, tungsten, chromium and phosphorus ore in second place with .
copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum and phosphorus reserves are located in markets copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum and phosphorus reserves are located in markets . Furthermore, iron, coal, petroleum, natural gas reserves are also abundant Furthermore, iron, coal, petroleum, natural gas reserves are also abundant .
of the proved oil reserves amounted to 100 billion tons of coal reserve is 39. 4 million tons, 11700 trillion cu m of natural gas reserves and 2170 hectares of forest land conversion for forests and 11700 trillion cu m of natural gas reserves and 2170 hectares of forest land conversion for forests and .
. 530 cubic meters of surface water resources and most of the farmland planted to spring wheat crop, cotton, sugar beet, tobacco, etc.

Administrative Divisions

Regionalization

the country is divided into 2 municipalities and 14 counties, respectively: Astana, Astana) and Almaty (Alma - Ata, Almaty, Almaty, Taldykorgan, Akmola (,) and Kokshetau, Aktobe oblast (, Aktobe, Atyrau Oblast (,), Atyrau, Pavlodar oblast (Pavlodar, Pavlodar), Mangghystau oblysy (, Aktau), Karaganda (, Qaraghandy),Chennai, the state (Costa, Costa Nai), Ke Zi of Dazhou (, Kyzylorda), Dzhambul (states, Taraz), Kazakhstan (Eastern states, Usher's door), South Kazakhstan (, Shymkent), the Western states (Kazakhstan, the Urals), North Kazakhstan oblast (, Kyzylzhar) Note:the country is divided into 2 municipalities and 14 counties, respectively: Astana, Astana) and Almaty (Alma - Ata, Almaty, Almaty, Taldykorgan, Akmola (,) and Kokshetau, Aktobe oblast (, Aktobe, Atyrau Oblast (,), Atyrau, Pavlodar oblast (Pavlodar, Pavlodar), Mangghystau oblysy (, Aktau), Karaganda (, Qaraghandy),Chennai, the state (Costa, Costa Nai), Ke Zi of Dazhou (, Kyzylorda), Dzhambul (states, Taraz), Kazakhstan (Eastern states, Usher's door), South Kazakhstan (, Shymkent), the Western states (Kazakhstan, the Urals), North Kazakhstan oblast (, Kyzylzhar) Note:. in brackets are the Queen's Park in brackets are the Queen's Park.
Kazakhstan

Capital

Astana, with a population of 100 million Astana, with a population of 100 million . Kazakhstan Astana is located in the central position slightly to the north, in the majority of ethnic Russians in the north and by the Kazakh dominated areas in the south of the boundary, from the former capital of Almaty about 1300 km, Ishim city, Four Seasons pleasant climate, has a good ecological environment, is rapidly expanding its Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Astana is located in the central position slightly to the north, in the majority of ethnic Russians in the north and by the Kazakh dominated areas in the south of the boundary, from the former capital of Almaty about 1300 km, Ishim city, Four Seasons pleasant climate, has a good ecological environment, is rapidly expanding its Kazakhstan .
is the main agricultural production base, China's railway hub is the main agricultural production base, China's railway hub .
Kazakhstan

Ethnic Population

Kazakhstan has a population of 1695 million (August 1, 2014), by more than 130 ethnic Kazak Kazakhstan has a population of 1695 million (August 1, 2014), by more than 130 ethnic Kazak . accounted for 66 per cent, Russians accounted for 21%, Uzbek, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German, Tatar, Uighur, North Korea, a Tajik national accounted for 66 per cent, Russians accounted for 21%, Uzbek, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German, Tatar, Uighur, North Korea, a Tajik national .
residents believe in Islam (mostly Sunni), Orthodox, Catholic, Jewish life expectancy residents believe in Islam (mostly Sunni), Orthodox, Catholic, Jewish life expectancy . Kazakhstan: 63 - year - old male, female, a 73 - year - old Kazakhstan: 63 - year - old male, female, a 73 - year - old .

National Symbol

Serendip

the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: sluglike breaks sluglike c 2.90μm sluglike Р02?? y c pi sigma. je 'kappa alpha c hallux; Russian: Р02 c pi sigma je y' kappa alpha К sluglike breaks sluglike 640x c 2.90μm sluglike??), referred to as the Kazakh in the Kazakh in the word of explanation is the Turkic "nomads" God of War", is a branch of ancient Turkic lineal in the word of explanation is the Turkic "nomads" God of War", is a branch of ancient Turkic lineal .
ancient ethnic Kazakhs" used to refer to this generation of ancient Central Asian nomadic tribes, such as UNFICYP, the Wusun, Rouzhi, etc. and these ancient nomadic ancestors of modern Kazakhs

Flies The Flag Of The People's Republic Of China

Kazakhstan's flag was rectangular, length and width ratio of 2: 1 Kazakhstan's flag was rectangular, length and width ratio of 2: 1 . flag is blue, the intermediate is a red flag highlighted by a golden sun., light 32 emitted by the sun, under which there is a flying eagle
flag pole side there is a vertical bar, a traditional Kazakh gold pattern of the pattern light blue flag pole side there is a vertical bar, a traditional Kazakh gold pattern of the pattern light blue . is the Kazakh people's traditional colors, representing the sky, but also a symbol of leisure, peace and tranquility; Kazakhstan to independence in December 1991 after adopting the flag of the People's Republic of China, on 4 June 1992 enabled is the Kazakh people's traditional colors, representing the sky, but also a symbol of leisure, peace and tranquility; Kazakhstan to independence in December 1991 after adopting the flag of the People's Republic of China, on 4 June 1992 enabled .
Kazakhstan

National Emblem

Kazakhstan national emblem enabled on 4 June 1992, which has a circular blue, gold - based color Kazakhstan national emblem enabled on 4 June 1992, which has a circular blue, gold - based color . emblem prominently the golden dome of the Kazakh traditional felt tent, Lace volley flying horse, a symbol of nomadic life; left bottom lace top Kazakh is the name the "Kazakhstan" emblem prominently the golden dome of the Kazakh traditional felt tent, Lace volley flying horse, a symbol of nomadic life; left bottom lace top Kazakh is the name the "Kazakhstan" .

National Anthem Of The People's Republic Of China

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Kazakhstan

Guohua

Tulip; Kazakh territory in all seasons tulips are open and that is what the Kazakh national flower it is one of the important reasons why Tulip; Kazakh territory in all seasons tulips are open and that is what the Kazakh national flower it is one of the important reasons why .

National Bird

golden eagles; it is a symbol of the Kazakh nation of free and uninhibited golden eagles; it is a symbol of the Kazakh nation of free and uninhibited .

Political

Polity

Ha is a presidential republic, and politics are kept stable Ha is a presidential republic, and politics are kept stable . 2006 established the new regime party "Motherland" light from CPC, President Nursultan Nazarbayev offered to take the party chairman 2006 established the new regime party "Motherland" light from CPC, President Nursultan Nazarbayev offered to take the party chairman .
stated in the Constitution of Kazakhstan was a "democratic, secular and unitary State"; the implementation of the national presidential republic, the President is the Head is to determine the country's domestic and foreign policies, and international relations in behalf of the Government of Kazakhstan, of the highest State officials, the people are with the national unified regime, the immovability of the Constitution, civil rights and freedoms of the stated in the Constitution of Kazakhstan was a "democratic, secular and unitary State"; the implementation of the national presidential republic, the President is the Head is to determine the country's domestic and foreign policies, and international relations in behalf of the Government of Kazakhstan, of the highest State officials, the people are with the national unified regime, the immovability of the Constitution, civil rights and freedoms of the . symbol and guarantee of the Constitution and laws as the basis, in accordance with the legislative, judicial,executive would again interact, mutual restrict, mutual balance of principles for the performance of the functions of the symbol and guarantee of the Constitution and laws as the basis, in accordance with the legislative, judicial,executive would again interact, mutual restrict, mutual balance of principles for the performance of the functions of the .
Kazakhstan's president for a term of 7 years Kazakhstan's president for a term of 7 years . dated 18 May 2007, Kazakhstan's Parliament passed a constitutional amendment, authorization by Nursultan A. Nazarbayev, and are not subject to the limitation on number of winning re - election to the office of President of the
the president can appoint the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Defence, Finance, Interior and National Security, but requires the consent of the Supreme Soviet of the president can appoint the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, Defence, Finance, Interior and National Security, but requires the consent of the Supreme Soviet of .

Constitution

Constitution in 1995, adopted by referendum on 30 August, on 7 October 1998 amendments Constitution in 1995, adopted by referendum on 30 August, on 7 October 1998 amendments . stipulated by the Constitution, Kazakhstan is a presidential republic, with the President as Head of State, is to determine the country's domestic and foreign policies and basic principles in international relations on behalf of Kazakhstan, of the highest State officials, is the people and state unity, the immovability of the Constitution, the rights and freedoms of citizens of the stipulated by the Constitution, Kazakhstan is a presidential republic, with the President as Head of State, is to determine the country's domestic and foreign policies and basic principles in international relations on behalf of Kazakhstan, of the highest State officials, is the people and state unity, the immovability of the Constitution, the rights and freedoms of citizens of the .
symbol and guarantee the integrity of the country to constitutional and legal basis, in accordance with the legislative, judicial, administrative and interaction as well as two of the three discrete, mutually restricts, mutually balancing principles implemented symbol and guarantee the integrity of the country to constitutional and legal basis, in accordance with the legislative, judicial, administrative and interaction as well as two of the three discrete, mutually restricts, mutually balancing principles implemented . mid - June 2007,Kazakh parliament passed a constitutional amendment determining Ha polity from the presidential to the parliamentary - presidential transition, and the first president of the security of tenure; expand parliamentary access on the role of political parties, increased the number of parliamentarians; the majority caucus in parliament to form a government and is elected Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China; and to expand the local self - governing powers, local chief executive in place subject to the consent of Parliament, the legislature's term of office of 4 years 5 years; and to promote the judicial reform, to clarify the law, setting out the duties of the Senate, simplify judicial procedures, safeguarding the justice system mid - June 2007,Kazakh parliament passed a constitutional amendment determining Ha polity from the presidential to the parliamentary - presidential transition, and the first president of the security of tenure; expand parliamentary access on the role of political parties, increased the number of parliamentarians; the majority caucus in parliament to form a government and is elected Prime Minister of the People's Republic of China; and to expand the local self - governing powers, local chief executive in place subject to the consent of Parliament, the legislature's term of office of 4 years 5 years; and to promote the judicial reform, to clarify the law, setting out the duties of the Senate, simplify judicial procedures, safeguarding the justice system .

Parliament

Parliament is the highest representative organ of the State, exercising legislative functions, the implementation of both houses of bicameral (respectively referred to as the Senate and Marley Risi), a six - year term in the House of Lords, the House of Commons for a term of 5 years Parliament is the highest representative organ of the State, exercising legislative functions, the implementation of both houses of bicameral (respectively referred to as the Senate and Marley Risi), a six - year term in the House of Lords, the House of Commons for a term of 5 years . 's principal function is to: Through the Constitution of the Republic and to the law and its amendments and additions; the president and the prime minister, and National Security, the Attorney - General, the National Bank has appointed 's principal function is to: Through the Constitution of the Republic and to the law and its amendments and additions; the president and the prime minister, and National Security, the Attorney - General, the National Bank has appointed .
in the knesset by only a motion of no confidence, twice denying the president appointed Prime Minister, due to the Houses of Parliament or between Parliament and the other sectors and cannot solve the political crisis caused by differences as to when,President shall have the right to dissolve parliament by lawmaker in the knesset by only a motion of no confidence, twice denying the president appointed Prime Minister, due to the Houses of Parliament or between Parliament and the other sectors and cannot solve the political crisis caused by differences as to when,President shall have the right to dissolve parliament by lawmaker . voters to vote directly on the upper house of parliament are elected voters to vote directly on the upper house of parliament are elected .
. Chatham if Marthe and Frank Mei column Nikolaevich Tokaev (E420 ОК 2А ЕМ theApplication sluglike c hallux м - ЖC36 о м sluglike р 2.90μm К м л wanting В95п.ч) today, October 11, 2013 took on the position of Speaker of the parliament - 19 national team has appealed to Lula, Aleksandr Nigel Mathurin (H y р л sluglike?? 0.З sluglike р y je je sluglike В95п.ч f uel group effect, today we м sluglike 2.90μm je?? y ') in January 2012,
of the presidency of the parliament's main functions are: by the Constitution of the Republic and to the law and its amendments and additions; the approval of the president's new Prime Minister,National Security, the Attorney - General, appointed by the Governor of the Central Bank; and the abolition of the ratification of international treaties, approve the national economic and social development plans, national budgets and the implementation of such plans, and a report on of the presidency of the parliament's main functions are: by the Constitution of the Republic and to the law and its amendments and additions; the approval of the president's new Prime Minister,National Security, the Attorney - General, appointed by the Governor of the Central Bank; and the abolition of the ratification of international treaties, approve the national economic and social development plans, national budgets and the implementation of such plans, and a report on . in the knesset by only a motion of no confidence, twice denying the president appointed Prime Minister, due to the Houses of Parliament or between Parliament and the other sectors and insurmountable problems caused by differences as to the political crisis, the president can dissolve parliament - in the knesset by only a motion of no confidence, twice denying the president appointed Prime Minister, due to the Houses of Parliament or between Parliament and the other sectors and insurmountable problems caused by differences as to the political crisis, the president can dissolve parliament - .

Government

the country's highest administrative organ to exercise the executive power of the Republic of Kazakhstan of its the country's highest administrative organ to exercise the executive power of the Republic of Kazakhstan of its . .
activities of a President of the Republic is responsible for the current government in April 2014, M.D., Karim Masimov (К. МT sluglike м о c ') and the inertia effect of the prime minister, the government is composed of main members: First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Regional Development Minister: Jean's urn (B.A. С sluglike г today?? 2.90μm sluglike effect); the Deputy Prime Minister: Ye's counterpart Nursultan Nazarbayev (ЕМ. 3ПО р hallux?? 3б sluglike effect); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Industry and New Technologies: Ah, according to Xie's family (2А. И c kappa expression maps) and the inertia effect of the Minister of the Interior: Erykah Badu Kasimov (К. К sluglike hallux м о group effect, c);Minister of Health: Sa, Wa (Il Bieke С. К sluglike today р 3б о kappa effect); the Minister for Foreign Affairs: Evgeny Ivanovich erlan idrisov (ЕМ. И р Analysis of Tap 'c) and the inertia effect of the culture and information minister: Mu. Kur Mohammed (МT. К - м y 640x 640x sluglike м Analysis); the Minister of Defence: A Jarvis Boxer Kydyrbekov (2А. 14.395 ф alpha kappa c hallux 3б о kappa effect); the Minister for Education and Science: A. Salin on Ryabov (2А. С sluglike р today?? ф о) Revisit the' group effect; The Environment Minister: Signed card's (H. К sluglike Revisit Revisit sluglike р о effect); Minister of Agriculture: A. Kydyrbekov Mamet (2А. МT sluglike м hallux 2.90μm 3б о kappa effect);Transportation and communication minister: Ahmad Ma Ru Sherali Djononov (2А. ЖC36 y f alpha alpha м л today is oil); the Ministry: Minister of the Principality of Du Yi Xie Nova (E420. 14.395 y c?? The untapped wanting to2013; Finance Minister: Bo Let Mi Scheffler (B.A. ЖC36 sluglike м maps of today is oil); emergencies minister: "mr bozhko (EB2. Б Tap Tap ф kappa); Minister of Economy and Budget Planning: Ye Freitas Sayyaf (ЕМ. 14.395 о sluglike group effect, c); the Minister of Justice: Don't, Ma's (B.A. И м alpha maps is oil); petroleum and natural gas minister: Karadzic Bahrain (BУ. К sluglike р today 3б sluglike л today??); Economic integration minister:Iran, Ai pinned Nova (ЖC36. 2А 2.90μm ф sluglike?? The untapped wanting)

Judicial

There are the Supreme Council of the Judiciary Committee, the commissions of expert evidence, the Constitutional Council, the Supreme Court and District Court There are the Supreme Council of the Judiciary Committee, the commissions of expert evidence, the Constitutional Council, the Supreme Court and District Court . at the beginning of 2001, the adoption of the judicial system and judge's Status Act, judges are played independently, only obey the constitution and the law of the Supreme Council of Judicature by at the beginning of 2001, the adoption of the judicial system and judge's Status Act, judges are played independently, only obey the constitution and the law of the Supreme Council of Judicature by .
under the auspices of the President is currently chaired by Rita Donaghy, Keefer (E420. 14.395 Tap Tap?? alpha kappa effect), in January 2012 to take up the appointment of its members including the Chairman of the Committee on the Constitution, the President of the Supreme Court, the Attorney - General, the Minister of Justice, the President of the Supreme Court that the Lords like AMARAL Buick Buick Nazarov (Б 2.90μm alpha kappa kappa c Б?? sluglike breaks sluglike р о effect),In April 2011, on your assumption of the presidency of the Attorney - General Asghar
Matt Doyle KARABAYEV (2А c 640x sluglike 2.90μm 14.395 sluglike y л 3б sluglike wanting), April 2011 presidency of

Political Party

Ha in the late 1980s and early 1990s began to execute the post - independence political pluralism Ha in the late 1980s and early 1990s began to execute the post - independence political pluralism ., , .
i. e. the process of multi - party system in July 2002 and issued to the Political Parties Act, stipulating that only the party member population exceeds 5 million, the country in 14 states, and municipalities directly under the Central Government and municipalities separately listed on the two branches, each branch has risen by more than 700 people before a party in the Ministry of Justice registered As of December 2011, the Ministry of Justice registered a total of 9 parties, among which are: (1) "The Light in HADEP (CНТ sluglike р?? Analysis of Tap Tap - Tap м Analysis of srIkappaB р sluglike 2.90μm today В95п.ч c kappa alpha
п sluglike р 2.90μm today " uel BУ РО2 E420 2А uel ":) of 22 December 2006 and the establishment of the People's Republic of China, and the existing 77 million members, is the largest political party of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan " uel BУ РО2 E420 2А uel ":) of 22 December 2006 and the establishment of the People's Republic of China, and the existing 77 million members, is the largest political party of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan .
personally took up the post of party chairman, first vice - chairman is saying goodbye to g personally took up the post of party chairman, first vice - chairman is saying goodbye to g . full support for the party of President Nursultan Nazarbayev full support for the party of President Nursultan Nazarbayev .
policy advocated a social partnership and harmony is established on the basis of the principles of free and open society; it advocates strengthening the country's social functions; in economic terms, for the strengthening of the national macroscopic economic regulation ability; in the sphere of external relations, advocate the consolidation and development of Russia,Central Asian and neighbouring countries such as China on Good - neighbourly Relations to policy advocated a social partnership and harmony is established on the basis of the principles of free and open society; it advocates strengthening the country's social functions; in economic terms, for the strengthening of the national macroscopic economic regulation ability; in the sphere of external relations, advocate the consolidation and development of Russia,Central Asian and neighbouring countries such as China on Good - neighbourly Relations to . full support for the party of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan by the road on the agenda for development, committed to the implementation of specific reform measures, and to uphold the constitution, to fully exploit its potential full support for the party of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan by the road on the agenda for development, committed to the implementation of specific reform measures, and to uphold the constitution, to fully exploit its potential .
party in Kazakhstan's lower house of parliament and local councils with a massive majority party in Kazakhstan's lower house of parliament and local councils with a massive majority . (2) BJP (Ha communist К о м м y c 2.90μm В95п.ч today?? we??
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К sluglike breaks sluglike 640x c 2.90μm sluglike??): April 2004 after the founding of the Communist Party's split, the branches 9 million people,general secretary of the communist party is particularly Keefer Akhmetov claimed to be a constructive opposition party, the Party is mainly composed of workers, students, intellectuals, retirees, entrepreneurs like Akhmetov claimed to be a constructive opposition party, the Party is mainly composed of workers, students, intellectuals, retirees, entrepreneurs like .
In January 2012 the lower house of parliament in the elections, 7. 19% of the votes, entering parliament 7 seats in the parliament) 7 seats in the parliament) .
3 ("Bright Road" (Democratic 14.395 м о kappa р sluglike 2.90μm today В95п.ч c kappa alpha п sluglike р 2.90μm today
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Chairman is Dr Ashcroft Chairman is Dr Ashcroft . in August 2007, held in Kazakhstan's lower house of parliament, the party won 3. 27% of the vote, failed to 7% of the parliamentary threshold
in January 2012 in Kazakhstan's lower house of parliament, the party won 7. 43% of the vote to enter parliament 8 seats in the parliament 8 seats in the parliament .
organizations purpose is building an independent, prosperous, democratic, free, fair and of Kazakhstan, is the political democratization of the principal proponent and participant of organizations purpose is building an independent, prosperous, democratic, free, fair and of Kazakhstan, is the political democratization of the principal proponent and participant of . Furthermore,legal political parties registered with the Ministry of Justice through the Social Democrats as well as the state (. GAMMA.2 о c y of c sluglike р 2.90μm wanting???? sluglike
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Dignitaries

President Nursultan A. Nazarbayev, Abby Milosevic was born in 1940 in Almaty, Kaskelen district of yourself. Don't 'dry village, Kazak
is a graduate of the Karaganda Steel Plant affiliated to the university, the senior of the Supreme Soviet of the Party School is a graduate of the Karaganda Steel Plant affiliated to the university, the senior of the Supreme Soviet of the Party School . correspondence courses in 1960 and started to work as a blast furnace, steel correspondence courses in 1960 and started to work as a blast furnace, steel .
1977 Secretary of the Karaganda and second secretary of the Party committee, 1977 Secretary of the Karaganda and second secretary of the Party committee,. 1979 served as the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and secretary of the Kazakh 1979 served as the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and secretary of the Kazakh .
1984 served as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan 1984 served as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan . $ $.
common central Ha First Secretary in February 1990, who is also chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh common central Ha First Secretary in February 1990, who is also chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh . in April of the same year Kazakh president Ren in April of the same year Kazakh president Ren .
1991 "8. 19" Event Ha announced his resignation after a total of first secretary of the cpc central office, and declared that they would not join any political party 1 December 1991 to 98. 76% of the votes to become the first President of the Republic of Kazakhstan after independence,In April 1995, the entire contents of which being a referendum to give the date as 2000
10 January 1999 to hold early presidential election with 79.78 percent of the vote and was re - elected in December 2005 to 91 percent of the vote and was re - elected president by 91 percent of the vote and was re - elected president by .
April 3, 2011 in advance of presidential elections in the re - elected April 3, 2011 in advance of presidential elections in the re - elected . is married and has three daughters is married and has three daughters .
Prime Minister Karim Masimov was born in 1965 born Prime Minister Karim Masimov was born in 1965 born ., , .
Kazak studied at Beijing Language and Culture University, Wuhan University Law School and Kazakhstan's National Management College, studying economics and international law,and a doctorate degree in economics in Kazak studied at Beijing Language and Culture University, Wuhan University Law School and Kazakhstan's National Management College, studying economics and international law,and a doctorate degree in economics in . He knows English, Chinese, Kazakh, Russian and Arabic He knows English, Chinese, Kazakh, Russian and Arabic .
in January 2006, Massimov became the head of the Kazakh Deputy Prime Minister in January 2006, Massimov became the head of the Kazakh Deputy Prime Minister . April 2006 to January 2007, he has been Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Budget Planning Minister April 2006 to January 2007, he has been Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Budget Planning Minister .
in January 2007, became the head of the Kazakh Prime Minister Karim Masimov in January 2007, became the head of the Kazakh Prime Minister Karim Masimov . on September 24, 2012, Harvey announced his resignation from the government as prime minister in December 2012 on September 24, 2012, Harvey announced his resignation from the government as prime minister in December 2012 .
stepped down on April 2, 2013, Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev appointed as the new Prime Minister Karim Masimov stepped down on April 2, 2013, Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev appointed as the new Prime Minister Karim Masimov .

Military

Military

President of the armed forces led by the Ministry of Defence in peacetime President of the armed forces led by the Ministry of Defence in peacetime . implementation by the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defence is responsible for organizing the implementation by the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defence is responsible for organizing the .
provided leadership for national defense, military construction and the development and implementation of development planning. Access to the troops, for logistical and equipment support General Staff for peacetime and wartime military headquarters, responsible for troop training, mobilization and General Staff for peacetime and wartime military headquarters, responsible for troop training, mobilization and .
Ha forces set up in 1992 on 7 May, the Army, Air Force, Navy, the three Services, two independent branches (MD and artillery and air maneuver forces), as well as other specialized (battle, combat support and technical support corps), and Armed Forces Logistics, Ha forces set up in 1992 on 7 May, the Army, Air Force, Navy, the three Services, two independent branches (MD and artillery and air maneuver forces), as well as other specialized (battle, combat support and technical support corps), and Armed Forces Logistics,. military academies and other National Security Commission, the Frontier Defense General Administration, Republic Guard, like other NKVD military military academies and other National Security Commission, the Frontier Defense General Administration, Republic Guard, like other NKVD military .
6,706: By 2011, Kazakhstan's military component, up to 16 million (regular combat troops) 6,706: By 2011, Kazakhstan's military component, up to 16 million (regular combat troops) . troops about 11 million, the existing equipment of all types of tanks and armored fighting vehicles and more than 4, 000, as well as all types of towed artillery, artillery, mortar and howitzer artillery, multiple rocket launchers, mortars, antitank cannon, 1941 near homes are a series of missile and artillery systems to the old Russian - made weapons for fighting poor troops about 11 million, the existing equipment of all types of tanks and armored fighting vehicles and more than 4, 000, as well as all types of towed artillery, artillery, mortar and howitzer artillery, multiple rocket launchers, mortars, antitank cannon, 1941 near homes are a series of missile and artillery systems to the old Russian - made weapons for fighting poor .
.
Kazakhstan

Relationship

If the military relationship with Russia, Russia and the former Soviet Union republics, each of which is formed in the Republic was the most secure and tight relationship following the breakup of the Soviet Union also argued, in the 2000s, before the end, this issue has been very clear - cut answer to Kazakhstan, and Russia has the longest land border of If the military relationship with Russia, Russia and the former Soviet Union republics, each of which is formed in the Republic was the most secure and tight relationship following the breakup of the Soviet Union also argued, in the 2000s, before the end, this issue has been very clear - cut answer to Kazakhstan, and Russia has the longest land border of . countries when, in May 1992, Kazakhstan became the first in the CIS and Russia signed the Treaty of Amity, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance Treaty countries when, in May 1992, Kazakhstan became the first in the CIS and Russia signed the Treaty of Amity, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance Treaty .
for the Comprehensive Nuclear - Test - Ban Treaty, the parties should be committed to the establishment of a common military co - operation, and to the use of military bases,Range and other military installations for the Comprehensive Nuclear - Test - Ban Treaty, the parties should be committed to the establishment of a common military co - operation, and to the use of military bases,Range and other military installations . other basic bilateral document of 6 July 1998, the Presidents of the United States signed the "21st century of perpetual friendship and alliance declaration" other basic bilateral document of 6 July 1998, the Presidents of the United States signed the "21st century of perpetual friendship and alliance declaration" .
as early as 28 March 1994, the parties signed a military cooperation framework treaty as early as 28 March 1994, the parties signed a military cooperation framework treaty . since then has received more than 60 bilateral documents and agreement, the first decade of the 21st century, the implementation of these documents has been remarkably advanced since then has received more than 60 bilateral documents and agreement, the first decade of the 21st century, the implementation of these documents has been remarkably advanced .
from the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's powerful departments to establish a partnership between from the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia's powerful departments to establish a partnership between . In addition, in the territory of Kazakhstan and Russia in the surrounding region and the largest military installations,These military installations to ensure Russia's defense force has continued to play an important role in Moscow In addition, in the territory of Kazakhstan and Russia in the surrounding region and the largest military installations,These military installations to ensure Russia's defense force has continued to play an important role in Moscow .
the form of leasing, the use of these facilities, the largest of which is located the form of leasing, the use of these facilities, the largest of which is located . Stephane Le Dazhou Section of Defence of the Russian federation in 5 countries test range (Baikonur Cosmodrome), located in West Kazakhstan and Atyrau oblasts. 85, and 171 231 Test Range (the latter three are located belongs to the Astrakhan Oblast of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defence Chkalov 929 national flight test center at lower levels have jurisdiction as courts of first instance), which is located in the west of Kazakstan are 20 independent states,8 and 16 test station is owned by the Russian Defense Ministry (the fourth national inter - services management) Test Range, located in Karaganda, Zamka Yobe, Ake Qiubin Oblast and Stephane Le Dazhou of Defence are 10 State Test Range (Sary - Shagan firing range), is located in the Aktobe Oblast 5580 Qiubin first test should be made by the Russian Defense Ministry (former 11th National Test Range En Mbaye Range), is located in Balkhash Lake to the head of Russia's space forces the third independent missile and space defense army independent radio technology hub ("Balkhash - 9") and Nai Costa facility located in the airport of the Russian air force regiment with
independent transport of the Collective Security Treaty Organization at the turn of the century is a key member, the purpose of the treaty is in the CIS countries collective defence space and improve the joint defense, prevent and mediate the CIS countries internal regional disputes and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) force independent transport of the Collective Security Treaty Organization at the turn of the century is a key member, the purpose of the treaty is in the CIS countries collective defence space and improve the joint defense, prevent and mediate the CIS countries internal regional disputes and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) force . the self defence, subject to the protection of Russian nuclear and other military protection the self defence, subject to the protection of Russian nuclear and other military protection .

Diplomatic

Foreign Policy

implement in order to consolidate the independence and sovereignty is the center of a pragmatic and balanced foreign policy, in the integration process and in the process in individual countries and produce many of the problems on implement in order to consolidate the independence and sovereignty is the center of a pragmatic and balanced foreign policy, in the integration process and in the process in individual countries and produce many of the problems on .

External Relations

in its relationship with China on 3 January 1992, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Minister Li Lanqing, Vice Foreign Minister Tian on the Chinese government delegation visit to Kazakhstan, the two sides signed the Joint Communique on the Establishment of in its relationship with China on 3 January 1992, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Minister Li Lanqing, Vice Foreign Minister Tian on the Chinese government delegation visit to Kazakhstan, the two sides signed the Joint Communique on the Establishment of . good relations, frequent exchanges of visits by good relations, frequent exchanges of visits by .
according to Chinese customs statistics, the 2012 China - Kazakhstan bilateral trade volume was US $256 billion, a year - on - year growth of 2. 9% wherein, in the direction of the Kazakh side with exports totaling $11 billion, a year - on - year growth of 15 percent, while imports of 146. 8 billion, a year - on - year decrease by 4. 7%
relationship with Russia, China and Russia is the country's foreign policy. The primary direction of 2012 ,Ha - Russian strategic partnership relations to develop steadily ,Ha - Russian strategic partnership relations to develop steadily .
the leaders of the two countries continue to maintain the high efficiency of a meeting and dialogue, on foreign policy is to maintain a high level of coherence and consistency of the the leaders of the two countries continue to maintain the high efficiency of a meeting and dialogue, on foreign policy is to maintain a high level of coherence and consistency of the . 3 months, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, attendance of the Eurasian Economic Community Inter - State Council and the Eurasian Economic Commission of the Conference of the Parties serving as the highest 3 months, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, attendance of the Eurasian Economic Community Inter - State Council and the Eurasian Economic Commission of the Conference of the Parties serving as the highest .
5 months, Boehner's visit to Russia and attend the commemoration of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Committee of Heads of State of CIS with informal meetings and other activities 5 months, Boehner's visit to Russia and attend the commemoration of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and the Committee of Heads of State of CIS with informal meetings and other activities . 5 month, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev visited Ha 5 month, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev visited Ha .
November, Prime Minister Harbin's Russia is paying a working visit to November, Prime Minister Harbin's Russia is paying a working visit to . 12 months, President Nursultan Nazarbayev's visit to Russia and attend the meetings of the Eurasian Economic Commission is the highest,Committee meeting of the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community summit meeting with Russia's Vladimir Putin via 12 months, President Nursultan Nazarbayev's visit to Russia and attend the meetings of the Eurasian Economic Commission is the highest,Committee meeting of the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community summit meeting with Russia's Vladimir Putin via .
1 January 2012, russia, belarus, kazakh unified economic space start - up of the Three Kingdoms, which are integrated with each other and under the framework of bilateral relations, the two countries economic and energy ties to further strengthen, in the exploitation of petroleum resources, transport, atomic energy and mineral resources exploitation and utilization of deepening cooperation between the China - Russia economic cooperation 1 January 2012, russia, belarus, kazakh unified economic space start - up of the Three Kingdoms, which are integrated with each other and under the framework of bilateral relations, the two countries economic and energy ties to further strengthen, in the exploitation of petroleum resources, transport, atomic energy and mineral resources exploitation and utilization of deepening cooperation between the China - Russia economic cooperation . Ha Ha .
2012 to retain a high level of growth in bilateral trade volume exceeded US $23.9 billion, a year - on - year growth of 25% wherein Ha to Russian import 171. 5 billion,67.
$5 in Russia has about 3,000 enterprises $5 in Russia has about 3,000 enterprises . Russia for big - name companies, such as Lukoil, Russia) were active in the energy industry and other Russia for big - name companies, such as Lukoil, Russia) were active in the energy industry and other .
Russia nearly 80 federal trade body with Kazakhstan to have Russia nearly 80 federal trade body with Kazakhstan to have . trans - border economic ties and trade between Russia - Kazakhstan trade turnover of more than 70% trans - border economic ties and trade between Russia - Kazakhstan trade turnover of more than 70% .
relationship between CIS countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is one of the priorities of the country's foreign policy relationship between CIS countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is one of the priorities of the country's foreign policy . February, Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev attending in Moscow, the CIS heads of state summit February, Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev attending in Moscow, the CIS heads of state summit .
3 months, the Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko's visit to Kazakhstan, the two countries decided to strengthen cooperation in oil and gas block 3 months, the Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko's visit to Kazakhstan, the two countries decided to strengthen cooperation in oil and gas block . 4 ~ 5 months,Upon the invitation of Kazakhstan President Kurmanbek Bakiyev of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan president Islam Karimov, Tajik President Emomali Rakhmon's visit in July 4 ~ 5 months,Upon the invitation of Kazakhstan President Kurmanbek Bakiyev of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan president Islam Karimov, Tajik President Emomali Rakhmon's visit in July .
Ha, Ha, Deputy Prime Minister Umirzak Shukeyev visited Uzbekistan Ha, Ha, Deputy Prime Minister Umirzak Shukeyev visited Uzbekistan . 8 months, and the two heads of state at the informal meeting of the Issyk - Kul performed 8 months, and the two heads of state at the informal meeting of the Issyk - Kul performed .
9 January, the Speaker of the House of Commons visited Ha Mu Xin Ji, the vice premier's visit to belarus Bobby Ji Ha 9 January, the Speaker of the House of Commons visited Ha Mu Xin Ji, the vice premier's visit to belarus Bobby Ji Ha . the same month, the CSTO, the Heads of State summit held in Moscow, through the Caucasus problem statement the same month, the CSTO, the Heads of State summit held in Moscow, through the Caucasus problem statement .
10 months, the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Eurasian Economic Community Heads of Government meeting held in Bishkek, after the meeting of the Central Asian heads of state of China, which specializes in meeting and water resources,Energy issues were a short - term agreement 10 months, the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Eurasian Economic Community Heads of Government meeting held in Bishkek, after the meeting of the Central Asian heads of state of China, which specializes in meeting and water resources,Energy issues were a short - term agreement . 11 months, the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) prime ministers' meeting in the capital, Chisinau, Moldova held, through the Framework of the CIS to the 2020 economic strategy for the development of documents such as 11 months, the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) prime ministers' meeting in the capital, Chisinau, Moldova held, through the Framework of the CIS to the 2020 economic strategy for the development of documents such as .
12 months, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Lavoy Harper held a summit to discuss tackling the economic crisis, decided to establish a total of $10 billion investment fund 12 months, Kazakhstan, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Lavoy Harper held a summit to discuss tackling the economic crisis, decided to establish a total of $10 billion investment fund . Islamic States relationship in 2008, and the Islamic State continues to keep diplomatic momentum alive, Kazakhstan has actively participated in various activities in the Islamic world, Islamic and Western countries to promote inter - civilization dialogue Islamic States relationship in 2008, and the Islamic State continues to keep diplomatic momentum alive, Kazakhstan has actively participated in various activities in the Islamic world, Islamic and Western countries to promote inter - civilization dialogue .
2 month, Speaker of the House of Commons Mu Xin visited Ha Ha 2 month, Speaker of the House of Commons Mu Xin visited Ha Ha . 3 months,King's visit to Qatar, the two sides decided to co - investment fund, in the same month, President Nazarbayev visited; in April, Abdul Halim ore attended by the Ministers at the Kuwait International Islamic Economic Forum 3 months,King's visit to Qatar, the two sides decided to co - investment fund, in the same month, President Nazarbayev visited; in April, Abdul Halim ore attended by the Ministers at the Kuwait International Islamic Economic Forum .
May, Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of the Forum held in Egypt from the Near East May, Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of the Forum held in Egypt from the Near East . June, Speaker of the House of Lords Tokaev attended in Saudi Arabia of Islamic Dialogue is June, Speaker of the House of Lords Tokaev attended in Saudi Arabia of Islamic Dialogue is .
7 months, the UAE President's visit to Kazakhstan, began a series of major projects 7 months, the UAE President's visit to Kazakhstan, began a series of major projects . 10 month, Transport Minister Mr Akhmetov to Iran to discuss the construction of the "Ha - soil - Yi railway project 10 month, Transport Minister Mr Akhmetov to Iran to discuss the construction of the "Ha - soil - Yi railway project .

Economic

Overview

Kazakhstan's economy from oil, natural gas, mining, coal, agriculture and livestock, heavy industry, light industry and processing industry very backward Kazakhstan's economy from oil, natural gas, mining, coal, agriculture and livestock, heavy industry, light industry and processing industry very backward . .
Most consumer goods imported from Kazakhstan after independence in the implementation of economic reform, market economy and the privatization of Most consumer goods imported from Kazakhstan after independence in the implementation of economic reform, market economy and the privatization of . in phases with the former Soviet Union's influence with Kazakh independence in carrying out market economy and privatisation in phases with the former Soviet Union's influence with Kazakh independence in carrying out market economy and privatisation .
by December 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Kazakh 37472 billion tenge, while per capita GDP is 252677 tenge by December 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Kazakh 37472 billion tenge, while per capita GDP is 252677 tenge . after the outbreak of the financial crisis,Ha after the outbreak of the financial crisis,Ha .
slowing in economic growth in 2008 GDP growth slowed to 3.2 percent in the first half of 2009 GDP growth was negative, but enter the second half of the decline of the economy's momentum has been restricted, and the full - year GDP maintained 1. 2%
growth from 2010 to 2012, the world economy recovers, international market demand and recovery for energy and metals, such as international prices stabilize, the economy began a strong rebound in exports growth growth from 2010 to 2012, the world economy recovers, international market demand and recovery for energy and metals, such as international prices stabilize, the economy began a strong rebound in exports growth . In addition, the main trading partners of the economic recovery, demand growth has also been promoting Ha In addition, the main trading partners of the economic recovery, demand growth has also been promoting Ha .
commodity export customs union of the in - depth development,Kazakhstan - China trade growth may also be useful as a contribution to economic growth of Kazakhstan oil, gas, mining, coal and agriculture and animal husbandry, industry and light industry is relatively backward commodity export customs union of the in - depth development,Kazakhstan - China trade growth may also be useful as a contribution to economic growth of Kazakhstan oil, gas, mining, coal and agriculture and animal husbandry, industry and light industry is relatively backward . Kazakhstan's industrial base is extremely weak, slow Kazakhstan's industrial base is extremely weak, slow .
. Most consumer goods imported from Kazakhstan after independence in the implementation of economic reform, market economy and the privatization of Most consumer goods imported from Kazakhstan after independence in the implementation of economic reform, market economy and the privatization of .
in phases with the former Soviet Union's influence with Kazakh independence in carrying out market economy and privatisation in phases with the former Soviet Union's influence with Kazakh independence in carrying out market economy and privatisation . by December 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Kazakh 37472 billion tenge, while per capita GDP is 252677 tenge by December 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Kazakh 37472 billion tenge, while per capita GDP is 252677 tenge .
after the outbreak of the financial crisis,Ha after the outbreak of the financial crisis,Ha . slowing in economic growth in 2008 GDP growth slowed to 3.2 percent in the first half of 2009
GDP growth was negative, but enter the second half of the decline of the economy's momentum has been restricted, and the full - year GDP maintained 1. 2% growth from 2010 to 2012, the world economy recovers, international market demand and recovery for energy and metals, such as international prices stabilize, the economy began a strong rebound in exports growth growth from 2010 to 2012, the world economy recovers, international market demand and recovery for energy and metals, such as international prices stabilize, the economy began a strong rebound in exports growth .
In addition, the main trading partners of the economic recovery, demand growth has also been promoting Ha In addition, the main trading partners of the economic recovery, demand growth has also been promoting Ha . commodity export customs union of the in - depth development,Kazakhstan - China trade growth has also contributed to the commodity export customs union of the in - depth development,Kazakhstan - China trade growth has also contributed to the .
Fed might raise rates this month's meeting is also open, emerging market currencies Kazakhstan tenge has barely three months ago from Fed might raise rates this month's meeting is also open, emerging market currencies Kazakhstan tenge has barely three months ago from . Kazakhstan allowed to float freely since the devaluation of the tenge by nearly 40% Kazakhstan allowed to float freely since the devaluation of the tenge by nearly 40% .
facing hyperinflation, Kazakhstan announced yesterday issued in denominations of 2 million tenge banknote, the banknote is the highest denomination had twice last night facing hyperinflation, Kazakhstan announced yesterday issued in denominations of 2 million tenge banknote, the banknote is the highest denomination had twice last night . Kazakhstan central bank issued 2 million tenge banknotes of the denomination, said the next day, December 1 Kazakhstan central bank issued 2 million tenge banknotes of the denomination, said the next day, December 1 .
Prior to become a legitimate bill, the highest denomination banknote of Kazakhstan of 1 million tenge.A 1 million tenge banknotes redeemable only at the current exchange rate to 33 $20 last year, from the day of the announcement by Kazakhstan of the abolition of exchange rate fluctuation interval limit, with a flexible exchange rate, on the day of tenge dollar slumped 30 percent and returned the next day plummeted 23% $20 last year, from the day of the announcement by Kazakhstan of the abolition of exchange rate fluctuation interval limit, with a flexible exchange rate, on the day of tenge dollar slumped 30 percent and returned the next day plummeted 23% .
abandoning its peg the day before, the Tenge against the dollar was 188 as of yesterday the tenge lost more than 50% abandoning its peg the day before, the Tenge against the dollar was 188 as of yesterday the tenge lost more than 50% . on 20 August, the Tenge dropped to $377. 6: 1 for a record low, weaker on the day to 4. 6%,August of last year and the abolition of exchange restrictions since Kazakhstan's sixth - largest one - day plunge in about 120% of the cumulative
.

Economic Collapse

In the aftermath of the financial crisis, economic growth In the aftermath of the financial crisis, economic growth . 2008 GDP growth slowed to 3.2 percent in the first half of 2009
GDP growth was negative, but enter the second half of the decline of the economy's momentum has been restricted, and the full - year GDP maintained 1. 2% growth from 2010 to 2012, the world economy recovers, international market demand and recovery for energy and metals, such as international prices stabilize, the economy began a strong rebound in exports growth growth from 2010 to 2012, the world economy recovers, international market demand and recovery for energy and metals, such as international prices stabilize, the economy began a strong rebound in exports growth .
In addition, the main trading partners of the economic recovery, demand growth has also been promoting Ha In addition, the main trading partners of the economic recovery, demand growth has also been promoting Ha . commodity export customs union of the in - depth development,Kazakhstan - China trade growth has also contributed to the commodity export customs union of the in - depth development,Kazakhstan - China trade growth has also contributed to the .
Fed might raise rates this month's meeting is also open, emerging market currencies Kazakhstan tenge has barely three months ago from Fed might raise rates this month's meeting is also open, emerging market currencies Kazakhstan tenge has barely three months ago from . Kazakhstan allowed to float freely since the devaluation of the tenge by nearly 40% Kazakhstan allowed to float freely since the devaluation of the tenge by nearly 40% .
facing hyperinflation, Kazakhstan announced yesterday issued in denominations of 2 million tenge banknote, the banknote is the highest denomination had twice last night facing hyperinflation, Kazakhstan announced yesterday issued in denominations of 2 million tenge banknote, the banknote is the highest denomination had twice last night . Kazakhstan central bank issued 2 million tenge banknotes of the denomination, said the next day, December 1 Kazakhstan central bank issued 2 million tenge banknotes of the denomination, said the next day, December 1 .
Prior to become a legitimate bill, the highest denomination banknote of Kazakhstan of 1 million tenge.A 1 million tenge banknotes redeemable only at the current exchange rate to 33 $on 20 August, the day of the announcement by Kazakhstan from the abolition of exchange rate fluctuation interval limit, with a flexible exchange rate, on the day of tenge dollar slumped 30 percent and returned the next day plummeted 23% $on 20 August, the day of the announcement by Kazakhstan from the abolition of exchange rate fluctuation interval limit, with a flexible exchange rate, on the day of tenge dollar slumped 30 percent and returned the next day plummeted 23% .

Agriculture

Kazakhstan's emptying the country at more than 2,000 hectares of arable land, the annual crop planting area amounting to approximately 1600 - 1800 hectares, grain production is 1800 tons Kazakhstan's emptying the country at more than 2,000 hectares of arable land, the annual crop planting area amounting to approximately 1600 - 1800 hectares, grain production is 1800 tons . major crops including wheat, corn, barley, oat, rye major crops including wheat, corn, barley, oat, rye .
in major grain - producing areas in the northern state of Costa, Nai, Akmola and North Kazakhstan State in major grain - producing areas in the northern state of Costa, Nai, Akmola and North Kazakhstan State . Southern areas can be planted with rice, cotton, tobacco, grapes and fruit like Southern areas can be planted with rice, cotton, tobacco, grapes and fruit like .
2012 agriculture is about 128. 47 billion, a year - on - year decrease by 17. 8%

Foreign Trade

2012 1368, foreign trade total 379.8 million US dollars, up 9. 8%; Export of $923 million, an increase of 5.3%, and the inlet 445 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 2 per cent had a trade surplus of $347.8 .
Ha contemporaneous with the Customs Union members Russia, Belarus - Russia bilateral trade 24.6 billion U.S. dollars, up 6. 9% import target children were: Russia (38. 4%), China (16. 8%) and Ukraine (6. 6%)
merchandise from the structural point of view, the main export commodities: mineral products accounted for 75% (including petroleum and petroleum products),Metal products accounted for 13. 1%, chemicals, plastics and rubber, cereals and plant products accounted for 3. 4%, machinery, equipment, vehicles, instruments and apparatus accounted for 1. 4%, others 2. 9% Main imports: Machinery, equipment, vehicles, instruments and apparatus accounted for 40 percent, chemical products (including rubber and plastics) accounted for 12. 9%, mineral products accounted for 12. 7%, the metal and its products account for 12. 3%, animal products and cereals (9. 5%, and others are 12. 2%

Cultural Education

Culture

In recent years, Kazakhstan in the field of culture construction has been remarkable development, the education level is still well behind In recent years, Kazakhstan in the field of culture construction has been remarkable development, the education level is still well behind . cultural institutions in the area of each of the outlets and further expand cultural and arts activities organized by the number of times so as to steadily improve cultural and leisure place, the infrastructure construction has developed rapidly in cultural institutions in the area of each of the outlets and further expand cultural and arts activities organized by the number of times so as to steadily improve cultural and leisure place, the infrastructure construction has developed rapidly in .
the end of 2008, the existing theater 50, Kazakh institutions of cultural performances by the Top 24, 164 from the museum, a library of 3,763, 58 cinema projection locations of 458, zoo - 4, 2 home theaters, Historical and Cultural Reserve 8 at 2320 Club, Park 28,culture unit is generally a year - on - year increase of 84 the end of 2008, the existing theater 50, Kazakh institutions of cultural performances by the Top 24, 164 from the museum, a library of 3,763, 58 cinema projection locations of 458, zoo - 4, 2 home theaters, Historical and Cultural Reserve 8 at 2320 Club, Park 28,culture unit is generally a year - on - year increase of 84 .

Education

Kazakhstan currently has 11 secondary education for the year, i.e. a total of 8,000 schools with a total enrollment of 270 million and a staff of 30 million, and Kazakh time learning in grades 1 - 11 to 57 hours per week, in which 33 secondary schools using Kazakh, Russian, and English - language teaching in vocational 866 Ha with a total enrollment of 61 million people and a staff of 3. 9 million; the various higher education institutions to 144, wherein nine of the National University, National University of 32 state - owned assets by 14 universities, private universities by
75 college students make a total of 63. 4 million and a staff of 3. 8 million

Publication Of The People's Republic Of China

By the end of 2008, Ha registered media co - 7092, of which only 2466 home were actually released or broadcast media, including newspapers, 1593, magazine - 650), and TV broadcast media made up of 212 units, the news agency the 11 By the end of 2008, Ha registered media co - 7092, of which only 2466 home were actually released or broadcast media, including newspapers, 1593, magazine - 650), and TV broadcast media made up of 212 units, the news agency the 11 . 80% or more of the private media, using 14 languages broadcast Ha 80% or more of the private media, using 14 languages broadcast Ha .
2392. Some foreign media activities, which the newspaper 2309 and 83 companies in the media field. 's major newspapers: "Kazakhstan Pravda" (the daily newspaper in Russian), with a circulation of 80,000 copies; "sovereign Kazakhstan reported" Ha Wen (daily), with a circulation of 80,000 copies."Letters" (the daily newspaper in Russian), which has a circulation of 1.8 million copies, and" pioneer report ") (in Russian dailies with a circulation of 3 million;" Aiken "Ha Wen (daily), with a circulation of 3.93 million copies, and" Caravan "(in Russian) is a weekly newspaper with a circulation of 225,000 games;" The Great Metropolis" (in Russian) is a weekly newspaper with a circulation of 3. 4 million copies, and "Panorama" (in Russian) is a weekly newspaper with a circulation of 1. 7 million copies, and the "Weekly" (in Russian) is a weekly newspaper with a circulation of over 10000
key agencies: (a) Kazakhstan news agency, Ha is the only national news agency, TASS (formerly former Kazakh bureau,and over 80 years of history, in Beijing, New York, Moscow, Brussels, Tashkent and Bishkek with key agencies: (a) Kazakhstan news agency, Ha is the only national news agency, TASS (formerly former Kazakh bureau,and over 80 years of history, in Beijing, New York, Moscow, Brussels, Tashkent and Bishkek with . (2) the Law of the People's Republic of China - Kazakhstan Today "news agency, was established in 2000, is a private media (2) the Law of the People's Republic of China - Kazakhstan Today "news agency, was established in 2000, is a private media .
(3)" interfax - Kazakhstan "news agency, Interfax. s.ambassador to kazakhstan bureau major broadcasting stations: Kazakhstan (1) according to the public broadcaster (National Radio Holdings, a subsidiary of the Kazakh major broadcasting stations: Kazakhstan (1) according to the public broadcaster (National Radio Holdings, a subsidiary of the Kazakh .
(2)," Khabar "National Radio and Television Corporation (Holdings) Company, a subsidiary of" Khabar Hot FM "Radio (2)," Khabar "National Radio and Television Corporation (Holdings) Company, a subsidiary of" Khabar Hot FM "Radio . (3)" Russia - Asia's" radio station,Russian Radio Kazakhstan (3)" Russia - Asia's" radio station,Russian Radio Kazakhstan .
co - organised by the major television networks: (a), "Khabar" National Radio and Television Corporation (Holdings) Company, a subsidiary of "Khabar" channel, "Ye Er '" video and radio channel "Caspian network" co - organised by the major television networks: (a), "Khabar" National Radio and Television Corporation (Holdings) Company, a subsidiary of "Khabar" channel, "Ye Er '" video and radio channel "Caspian network" . satellite channels in which the "Khabar" television program which aired on 14 hours, 17 million people in the audience, the coverage rate was 95. 7%, in Beijing, Moscow, Tashkent and Bishkek with
"Ye Er'" video radio path reaches 75. 5% "Caspian network" satellite channels, night and day, rolling news broadcast, covering Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and parts of North Africa,The potential audience of up to 99 million ( "Caspian network" satellite channels, night and day, rolling news broadcast, covering Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and parts of North Africa,The potential audience of up to 99 million (.
2) Kazakhstan Radio and Television Company (), a subsidiary of Kazakhstan's state - controlled national television program which aired on 2) Kazakhstan Radio and Television Company (), a subsidiary of Kazakhstan's state - controlled national television program which aired on . 15 hours, the covering rate is 96. 25%
(3) "of the first channel - Eurasian" TV channel, Russia's" first channel "with Kazakhstan to jointly administer the coverage reached 78. 6% (4) a commercial television station, the train's a private TV station, which aired on the program 15 hours, the coverage rate reached 81% (4) a commercial television station, the train's a private TV station, which aired on the program 15 hours, the coverage rate reached 81% .
Kazakhstan

Tourism

The complex was built in 1972, and 1975 was awarded the USSR State prizes The complex was built in 1972, and 1975 was awarded the USSR State prizes . rink 10500 square meters, ice up to a thickness of 2. 3 meters, almost year - round use due to its excellent conditions for
. As a star around the rink, swimming pool, restaurant, bar and cafe As a star around the rink, swimming pool, restaurant, bar and cafe .
between two hills also built a mud - rock flow preventing dam, was founded in 1964, and completed in 1980, is situated at an altitude of 1750 meters, with a maximum height of 150 meters, 530 meters long, the bottom width of 800 meters between two hills also built a mud - rock flow preventing dam, was founded in 1964, and completed in 1980, is situated at an altitude of 1750 meters, with a maximum height of 150 meters, 530 meters long, the bottom width of 800 meters . Sam Black alpine ski bases: the distance "Dior" snow - sports center about 5 kilometers, the altitude of 2230 meters above sea level, there are three levels of the tramway,a length of about 1500 meters, up to the snow line altitude of 3000 meters altitude, the skiing tracks with a length of about 3000 meters, is the winter leisure, entertainment Sam Black alpine ski bases: the distance "Dior" snow - sports center about 5 kilometers, the altitude of 2230 meters above sea level, there are three levels of the tramway,a length of about 1500 meters, up to the snow line altitude of 3000 meters altitude, the skiing tracks with a length of about 3000 meters, is the winter leisure, entertainment .
Koktobe TV Tower: its interior is in a televised radio station, located in the south of the city of Almaty of Koktobe on the hillside, at an elevation of 1000 meters, the height 372 meters, 271 kW power, and may cover a radius of 80 - 190 km of terrain, and broadcasts five television channels, four radio broadcast channel with the adjacent station tower for a panoramic, overlooking the city of Almaty panorama, and the city to have a Koktobe TV Tower: its interior is in a televised radio station, located in the south of the city of Almaty of Koktobe on the hillside, at an elevation of 1000 meters, the height 372 meters, 271 kW power, and may cover a radius of 80 - 190 km of terrain, and broadcasts five television channels, four radio broadcast channel with the adjacent station tower for a panoramic, overlooking the city of Almaty panorama, and the city to have a . Monument of Independence:The memorial is by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev and to support initiatives in 1999 built Monument of Independence:The memorial is by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev and to support initiatives in 1999 built .
located downtown Almaty's central Independence Square, Sartre Kadyrbayev Avenue and Bay Street at the intersection of the axis of the plug's monument is 28 meters high located downtown Almaty's central Independence Square, Sartre Kadyrbayev Avenue and Bay Street at the intersection of the axis of the plug's monument is 28 meters high . .
Penfield - 28 Warrior Park: Situated in the heart of the city of Almaty Gogol Street, the 18 - hectare complex Penfield - 28 Warrior Park: Situated in the heart of the city of Almaty Gogol Street, the 18 - hectare complex . well - wooded park, beautiful scenery, the park has the fire long, glorious monument, officers such as home building well - wooded park, beautiful scenery, the park has the fire long, glorious monument, officers such as home building .
Park was first built in the 1970s, to commemorate the defence of Moscow in repelling the German fascists in the tanks,the heroism of the Soviet front 316 of the Philippines Love Guards Infantry Regiment 28 1075 of a warrior (there are 10 named people named Park was first built in the 1970s, to commemorate the defence of Moscow in repelling the German fascists in the tanks,the heroism of the Soviet front 316 of the Philippines Love Guards Infantry Regiment 28 1075 of a warrior (there are 10 named people named . Almaty) Almaty).

Renaming Proposal

President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, February 6, 2014 in the western city of Atyrau met representatives said, should consider and discuss the Kazakhstan named the "Kazakh Yerevan" () President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, February 6, 2014 in the western city of Atyrau met representatives said, should consider and discuss the Kazakhstan named the "Kazakh Yerevan" () . name in Kazakh language the word is the "country of the Kazakhs" name in Kazakh language the word is the "country of the Kazakhs" .
Nazarbayev said at the meeting:" At present, our country, like many other Central Asian countries, the name has the word 'Stan, but perhaps we should consider changing the name of the Kazakh State Yerevan', of course, we must first of all, to the people to fully discuss" Nazarbayev said at the meeting:" At present, our country, like many other Central Asian countries, the name has the word 'Stan, but perhaps we should consider changing the name of the Kazakh State Yerevan', of course, we must first of all, to the people to fully discuss" .

Latest News

Astana, the Kazakhstan Statistics website from time to time and from place to place, and by the end of 2013, Astana and a total of 26 markets, 13898 booths, covering an area of square meters which Astana, the Kazakhstan Statistics website from time to time and from place to place, and by the end of 2013, Astana and a total of 26 markets, 13898 booths, covering an area of square meters which . 4830, Almaty region 13 (50%), Sary Arka zone 13 (50%) 4830, Almaty region 13 (50%), Sary Arka zone 13 (50%) .
26 end - markets in 23 companies belonging to corporate 26 end - markets in 23 companies belonging to corporate . kiosk 60, which includes 26 greenhouses (container) 5749 kiosk 60, which includes 26 greenhouses (container) 5749 .
in a market area for the 7 home of Veterinary Hygiene Supervision and Inspection Station, equipped with a refrigeration cabinet in a market area for the 7 home of Veterinary Hygiene Supervision and Inspection Station, equipped with a refrigeration cabinet . 330 330.

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