賓語重句

賓語從句,英語語法辭彙,賓語從句在複合句中作主句的賓語。賓語從句常由that引導,在口語中常省略。 當主句中謂語動詞是現在或將來時態時,從句中謂語動詞不受主句中謂語動詞時態的影響,按需要可以使用任何時態。

什麼是複合句

複合句是由一個主句和一個或多個從句構成的句子。主要有狀語從句,賓語從句和定語從句。

賓語從句在複合句中作主句的賓語

賓語從句常由that引導,在口語中常省略。
1)當主句中謂語動詞是現在或將來時態時,從句中謂語動詞不受主句中謂語動詞時態的影響,按需要可以使用任何時態。
如: She says (that) she works from Monday to Friday.
她說她從周一至周五上班。(從句是一般現在時)
She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk.
她說她要在他桌子上留個便條。(從句是一般將來時)
She says (that) she has never been to Mount emei.
她說她從來沒有去過峨眉山。(從句是現在完成時)
2)當主句謂語是過去時態,從句中的時態一般用表示過去的某種時態。
如:He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon.
他說昨天下午沒有課。(從句是一般過去時)
He said (that) he was going to take care of the baby.
他說他會去照看這個嬰兒。(從句是過去將來時)
He said (that) they were having a meeting at that time.
他說他們那時正在開會。(從句是過去進行時)
3)當主句謂語是過去時態,而賓語從句敘述某一客觀真理(事實)時, 賓語從句的時態則用一般現在時。
如:The teacher told us(that) nothing is difficult if you put your heart into it.
老師告訴我們世上無難事只怕有心人
She said (that) her father is twenty-eight years older than her. 她說她父親比她大二十八歲。
He said that light travels much faster than sound.
他說光傳播比聲音傳播快得多。

由連線代詞或連線副詞引導的賓語從句

引出名詞性從句的連詞whether和if,在引出賓語從句時,用法和意義相同。但是只能引出賓語從句和不在句首的主語從句,而whether除了引出賓語從句外,還可引出主語從句、表語從句和同位語從句。
例如:
We don't know whether (if) it is right.
我們不知道它是否正確。
The question is whether she should do that.
問題在於她是否應該做那件事。
Whether it is true remains a question.
是真是假還是個問題。
試比較:
當if從句處在主句之後作“是否”講時,引出的是賓語從句。
例如:
I don't know if it is true.
我不知道這事是否真實。
當if從句在主句之前作“如果”講,則引出狀語從句。
例如:
I shall go there if I have time.
如果我有時間,我將到那兒去。
when,where,why屬於關係副詞,都在其引導的定語從句中充當狀語,其具體用法如下:
1. 關係副詞 when引導定語從句(包括限定性定語從句和非限定性定語從句)修飾表示時間的先行詞,在定語從句中充當時間狀語。例如:
I still remember the day when I first met Jennifer.我仍然記得第一次見到詹妮弗的那一天。
Next month, when you’ll spend your summer holidays in your hometown,is approaching. 下個月即將來臨,屆時你們將在家鄉度暑假。
2. 關係副詞where引導定語從句(包括限定性定語從句和非限定性定語從句)修飾表示地點的先行詞,在定語從句中充當地點狀語。例如:
This is the office where he worked. 這就是他工作過的辦公室。
She is going to live in Macao, where she has some close friends. 她要到澳門去定居, 在那裡她有幾個密友。
3. 關係副詞why引導限定性定語從句修飾先行詞reason,在定語從句中充當原因狀語。例如:
I don’t know the reason why he came so late. 我不知道他來得那么晚的原因。
That is the reason why I don’t want to go. 那就是我不想去的理由。
He didn’t tell me the reason why he was so upset.他沒有告訴我他為什麼那樣心煩意亂。
注意:關係代詞與關係副詞之間並非毫無關聯,兩者之間存在密切的聯繫。在備考中尤其要注意以下幾點:
1. 很多情況下關係副詞用“介詞+which/whom”來代替,其中的介詞由先行詞或定語從句中謂語動詞的形式來決定,例如:
The day when I met the famous pop star was the greatest day of my life.
= The day on which I met the famous pop star was the greatest day of my life.
見到這位著名歌星的那天是我一生中最重要的日子。
I shall never forget those years when I lived with her.
= I shall never forget those years during which I lived with her.
我將永遠不會忘記我跟她生活的那些歲月。
This is a hall where the medical conference will be held.
= This is a hall in which the medical conference will be held.
這是禮堂,醫學會議將在此召開。
2. 並非先行詞表示時間或地點時都分別用when或where來引導相應的定語從句,若關係詞在修飾表示時間或地點的先行詞的定語從句中充當主語、賓語等而不是狀語時,需用which或that引導相應的定語從句。例如:
Do you still remember the days which/that we spent together in school?
你還記得我們一起在學校度過的那些日子嗎?
先行詞the days表時間,但是其定語從句的引導詞在定語從句中作賓語而不是狀語,因此不能用when而應該用which或that.
3. that有時可以代替定語從句中的關係副詞when,where,why,且that常可以省略,例如:
This is the time(when/that)he arrived. 這是他到達的時間。

參考例題

[考題1] We are living in an age ____ many things are done on computer. (2003北京春)
A. which B. that C. whose D. when
[答案] D
[解析]本題中下劃線處所引導的限定性定語從句修飾表示時間的先行詞age,其引導詞在該定語從句中充當時間狀語,因此只能填入關係副詞when.
[考題2]The film brought the hours back to me ____ I was taken good care of in that far-away village. (2001)
A. until B. that C. when D. where
[答案]C
[解析]本題中下劃線處所引導的限定性定語從句修飾表示時間的先行詞hours,其引導詞在該定語從句中充當時間狀語,因此只能填入關係副詞when.
[考題3]It was an exciting moment for these football fans this year,____ for the first time in years their team won the World Cup.(2000北京、安徽春)
A. that B. while C. which D. when
[答案] D
[解析]本題中下劃線處所引導的非限定性定語從句修飾表示時間的先行詞moment,其引導詞在該定語從句中充當時間狀語,因此只能填入關係副詞when.
[考題4] After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. (1996)
A. which B. where C. that D. when
[答案] B
[解析]本題中下劃線處所引導的限定性定語從句修飾表示地點的先行詞town,其引導詞在該定語從句中充當地點狀語,因此只能填入關係副詞where.
[考題5]We will be shown around the city: schools, museums, and some other places, ____ other visitors seldom go. (2002北京)
A. what B. which C. where D. when
[答案] C
[解析]本題中下劃線處所引導的非限定性定語從句修飾表示地點的先行詞some other places,其引導詞在該定語從句中充當地點狀語,因此只能填入關係副詞where.
[考題6]I walked in our garden,____ Tom and Jim were tying a big sign onto one of the trees. (2005遼寧)
A. which B. when C. where D. that
[答案] C
[解析]本題中下劃線處所引導的定語從句修飾表示地點的先行詞garden並在該定語從句中充當地點狀語,因此只能填入關係副詞where.
[考題7] We’re just trying to reach a point ____ both sides will sit down together and talk. (2006山東)
A. where B. that C. when D. which
[答案] A
[解析] point可以理解成地點、位置,其後面的定語從句中缺少地點狀語,因此下劃線處只能填入引導詞where。
英語中有這樣兩種句子結構,一種叫做簡單句,一種叫做複合句。簡單句由一個主語部分和一個謂語部分組成,例如:I had a surprise party for Marcia last Sunday. 上周日我為瑪西亞舉辦了一個令人驚訝的舞會。另一種是複合句,有主句和其它從句構成,通俗的說就是一個大句子中包含著小句子,小句子作大句子的某種成分。
在複合句中,作及物動詞或介詞的賓語的句子稱為賓語從句。例如:He said he went to the park every morning. 其中“he went to the park every morning”作及物動詞said的賓語,那么它就是一個賓語從句。

學習賓語從句應注意哪些要點

學習賓語從句應注意以下一些要點:
一、賓語從句要用陳述句語序。連詞that在其引導的賓語從句中本身無意義,不擔當任何句子成分,且常可省略。例如:
He says (that) you are not supposed to smoke on the bus. 他說你不應該在公共汽車上抽菸。
二、that引導的賓語從句常接在say, think, believe, hope, wish, say, tell, know, see, hear, mean, agree等動詞後。例如:
I see (that) you are always nervous when you make a speech.我看每當你演講時,你總是緊張。
三、think, believe等表示看法的動詞後接否定式的賓語從句時,需“否定轉移”。例如:
I don”t think it is a good idea for him to copy my homework.我認為他抄襲我的作業不是個好主意。
I didn”t believe that she made a decision to accept the job.我相信她不會決定接受那份工作。
四、賓語從句的兩種時態:
1. 若主句為一般現在時,賓語從句要隨具體情況選擇所需時態。例如:
I know that Lin Da wasn”t in good health after he fell ill. 我知道林達病後身體欠佳。
2. 若主句為一般過去時,則賓語從句通常要用過去的某種時態。例如:
He said that luckily the rain stopped before we started. 他說幸虧在我們動身前雨停了。
註:主句是一般過去時,賓語從句是指客觀真理、自然現象時要用一般現在時。
The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun. 老師說地球繞著太陽轉。

賓語從句兩個“三”

一、 賓語從句兩個“三”
1. 三種類型
(1) that引導的賓語從句。如:
He said that it was Sunday yesterday.
(2) if / whether引導的賓語從句。如:
Could you tell me if / whether there will be a test next week?
(3) how以及wh-類連線詞引導的賓語從句。如:
They don’t know what they should do.
I don’t understand why he didn’t take part in the activity.
2. 三點注意
(1) 否定轉移。當主句的主語是I,謂語動詞為think, believe等時,如果從句是否定句,其否定形式通常轉移到主句中。如:
I don’t think it is going to rain.
I don’t believe the news is true.
(2) 時態不變。當主句的謂語動詞為過去時態,而從句講的是客觀規律、科學真理等時,從句時態套用一般現在時。如:
The teacher told us that the earth goes around the sun.
(3) “兩副面孔”。if和when既能引導賓語從句,又能引導狀語從句。因此,一定要認清它們一種形式的“兩副面孔”,從而準確地判斷句子的類型。如:
I don’t know if / when he will come tomorrow. (賓語從句)
If / When he comes, I’ll tell you about it.(狀語從句)

賓語從句與簡單句

含有賓語從句的複合句有時可以變為簡單句。該知識點在句型轉換的題型中經常會作為考點出現。現歸納如下:1. 在某些由疑問詞(why除外)引導的賓語從句的複合句中,當從句的主語與主句的主語一致時,原複合句可以變為簡單句。
【變法】把賓語從句轉換為“疑問詞+動詞不定式”結構作主句謂語動詞的賓語。如:
I want to know how I can open the door.
→I want to know how to open the door.
2. 在某些由疑問詞(why除外)引導的賓語從句的複合句中,當從句的主語與主句謂語動詞的間接賓語一致時,原複合句可以變為簡單句。
【變法】把賓語從句轉換為“疑問詞+動詞不定式”結構作主句謂語動詞的複合賓語。如:
Could you tell me how I can get to the post office?
→Could you tell me how to get to the post office?
3. 在某些由that引導的賓語從句的複合句中,當從句的主語與主句的主語不一致時,原複合句可以變為簡單句。
【變法】原複合句可變為“主語+謂語+賓語+賓補”的句型。如:
We found that the boy was very clever.
→We found the boy very clever.
I saw that they were playing basketball there.
→I saw them playing basketball there.

如何把含有賓語從句的複合句轉化為簡單句

一、當主句謂語動詞是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等動詞時,賓語從句的主語與主句主語一致時可轉化,例如:
1、Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon.
→Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.
2、We decided that we would help him.
→We decided to help him.
二、當主句謂語動詞是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等動詞時,且主句主語與從句主語一致時,可簡化。例如:
1、She has forgotten how she can open the window.
→She has forgotten how to open the window.
註:當主句謂語動詞是tell, ask, show, teach等動詞,且後帶雙賓語,從句主語和間接賓語一致時,可簡化。例如:
1、Could you tell me how I can get to the station?
→Could you tell me how to get to the station?
三、當主句的謂語動詞是order(命令),require(需要)等時,如果主句和從句的主語不一致,可簡化為“名詞(代詞)+不定式”結構。例如:
1、The headmaster ordered that we should start at once.
→ The headmaster ordered us to start at once.
四、某些動詞後的賓語從句,可以用介詞加動名詞(短語)等其他形式簡化。例如:
1、He insisted that he should go with us.
→He insisted on going with us.
2、The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born.
→The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.
五、某些動詞後面的賓語從句可轉化為“賓語+V-ing形式(作賓語補足語)”結構。例如:
1、Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground.
→ Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.
六、動詞seem後的賓語從句,也可以用不定式(短語)來簡化,但句型需要進行適當的變化。一些find後面的從句可改為 +形容詞的結構,例如:
1、It seemed that the boys were going to win.
→The boys seemed to win.
2、I found that it was difficult to learn English well.
→I found it difficult to learn English well.
3、Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow.
→Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.
4、They found that the box was very heavy.
→They found the box very heavy.

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