被動語態

被動語態

被動語態是動詞的一種形式,用以說明主語與謂語動詞之間的關係。英語的語態共有兩種:主動語態和被動語態。主動語態表示主語是動作的執行者,被動語態表示主語是動作的承受者。被動語態是動詞的一種特殊形式,一般來說,只有需要動作對象的及物動詞才有被動語態。漢語往往用"被"、"受"、"給"等被動詞來表示被動意義。被動語態由“助動詞be+及物動詞的過去分詞”構成。被動語態的時態變化只改變be的形式,過去分詞部分不變。疑問式和否定式的變化也如此。

基本信息

詳解

主動語態變被動語態時,主動語態句中的賓語變成被動語態句中的主語,主動語態句中的主語成為被動語態句中的動作的發出者。

構成

(1)助動詞be+及物動詞的過去分詞、

(2)情態動詞+be+及物動詞的過去分詞

現以動詞ask為例,將一般現在時和一般過去時的被動語態列表如下

肯定式 否定式 疑問式
一般現在時 I am asked.. He/she is asked... We/you/they are asked... I am not asked... He/She is not asked... We/you/they are not asked... Am I asked...? Is he/she asked...? Are we/you/they asked...?
一般過去時 I was asked... He/She was asked ... We/you/they were asked... I was not asked... He/Shewas not asked... We/you/they were not asked Was I asked...? Was he/she asked...? Were we/you/they asked...?

被動語態常用於陳述事實,一般用在科技文章或新聞報導中。

口訣

一般現在時、一般過去時用be +及物動詞的.過去分詞,be有人稱、時、數變。

完成時態have(has)done,被動將been加中間。

一般將來shall(will)do,被動變do為be done。

將來進行無被動,shall(will)be doing。

現在完成時,have(has)been done。

現、過進行be doing,被動be加being done。

情、助、有、是妥安排,一律隨新主語變。

否定助後加not,疑問一助置主前。

主語恰是疑問詞,直陳語序主在前。

一般情助加be done,雙賓多將間賓變。

複合賓語賓變主,賓補、主補相應變。

第二句“be有人稱、時、數變”即be有人稱、時態和單、複數的變化。“情助”是指情態動詞和助動詞“must,may,can,shall,will”等一律隨新主語(多是主動句中的賓語)來變化。“疑問一助置主前”是說有兩個助動詞的話,應把主語放在第一助動詞之後或把第一助動詞置於主語之前。下面詳細舉例說明之:

主動語態變為被動語態例句:

一般現在時:

主:We believe him.

被:He is believed by us.

一般過去時:

主:He bought his children some pens.

被:Some pens were bought for his children by him.

一般將來時:

主:Everyone will know the truth soon .

被:The truth will be known by everyone.

現在進行時:

主:Mary is making a doll.

被:A doll is being made by Mary.

過去進行時:

主:They were carrying the hurt player.

被:The hurt player was being carried by them .

現在完成時:

主:He has received the letter.

被:The letter has been received by him.

過去完成時:

主:They had built ten bridges.

被:Ten bridges had been built by them

一般現在時與過去時

例:

1、主動:The children gave the foreign guests a warm welcome.

被動:The foreign guests were given a warm welcome by the children.

孩子們熱烈地歡迎外賓。

2、主動:People regard him as brilliant.

被動:He is regarded as brilliant by people.

人們認為他很有才華。

以上兩例都是一般時態用“be done”的事例,be有人稱、時、數變,第三人稱“foreign friends”是複數,時態一般過去時,所以“be done”就是“were given”,而“People regard him as brilliant”一句,被動後的“be done”就變成單數第三人稱“is regarded”的形式了。

被動:

This speech was delivered by comrade Wang. (“was delivered”即為一般過去時的被動態)

這是王同志的講演。

There was a serious train accident near the border. Two people were killed and twelve were injured.

邊境發生非常嚴重列車事故,兩人死亡,十二人受傷。

A person who is truly honest is called a straight arrow.

直言不諱的人才是真正誠實的人。

A note was passed up to the speaker.

有人給講演者遞上來一張紙條。

John was elected president of the class instead of Harry.

喬治被選為班長來代替亨利。

Volcanoes are described as active, dormant or extinct.

火山被叫做活火山,休眠火山,或者死火山。

The soldier was killed, but the train was saved.

這位戰士犧牲了,然而列車得救了。

He was thought to be clever but dishonest.

他被認為很聰明但不誠實。

The first zoological garden in the United States was established in 1874.

美國的第一個動物園是1874年建立的。

Families were often broken up; wives were taken away from their husbands and children from their parents.

家庭總是被拆散,丈夫失去妻子,父母失去孩子。

The information is urgently needed.

急需這個資料。

Most environmental problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them were not taken in the past.

多數環境污染問題的存在是因為過去沒有採取適當的保護措施。

完成時態

(過去完成時“had done”也包括在內)。

例:

1、主動:We have studied English for 3 years at the spare-time school.

被動:English has been studied by usfor 3 yearsat the spare-time school.(“have”隨新主語變為“has”)

我們已經在夜校里學了三年英語了。

2、主動:They had produced 100 tractors by the end of last year.

被動:100 tractors had been produced by the end of last year.

到去年年底他們已生產出一百台拖拉機。

3、主動:They have set up a power station in their home town.

被動:A power station has been set up in their home town.

他們的家鄉建立了一座發電站。

4、主動:They have warned us to be careful of rats.

被動:We have been warned to be careful of rats by them.

他們已提醒我們要注意老鼠。

5、主動:People have piled plastic bags full of rubbish in streets.

被動: Plastic bags full of rubbish have been piled in streets.

人們把裝滿垃圾的塑膠袋子堆放在街上。

6、主動:We have used nuclear energy to produce electricity.

被動:Nuclear energy has been used to produce electricity by us.

核能被我們用來發電。

7、主動:No one has ever beaten him at tennis.

被動:He has never been beaten at tennis.

就網球來說還沒有人是他的對手。

(“No one”涉及到全否定和部分否定問題,見否定一講)

The person who owns the gun may try to deny that he has used it. But anyone seeing the smoke knows the gun has just been fired.

有槍的人可能會試圖否認他開了槍。但是任何看到槍冒的煙的人都會知道他剛才開了槍。

Today is Cilia's wedding day, she has just been married to Bob.

今天是西麗亞的新婚日,她剛剛和鮑勃結婚。

The subjects of these lectures have been announced by the lecture committee.

演講委員會已宣布了這些講演的題目。

過去完成時也是一樣:

主動:Somebody had cleaned my shoes.

被動:My shoes had been cleaned by somebody.

有人已把我的鞋子擦了。

主動:When I returned I found that they had towed (tow) my car away, I asked why they had done this and they told me that it was because I had parked it under a "No Parking Sign".

被動:My car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and told that...it had been parked under a "No Parking Sign".

當我回來時,發現我的車被拖走了。我問他們為什麼這么乾。他們告訴我說因為我把車停在“禁止停車”的區域。

主動:They had build three ships by last December.

被動:By last December three ships had been built by them.

到去年年底他們已建造了三艘船。

Research had been centred on the improvement of natural building materials before synthetics were created.

合成材料造出之前,研究工作集中在改進天然建築材料上。

He did not say if all those steel pipes had been examined.

他並沒有說那些鋼管是否都檢驗過。

After plastic had been created, engineers were given a much wide choice of materials.

塑膠發明之後,工程師們在材料選擇上有了更廣闊的途徑。

一般將來時

“shall(will) do”,被動變“do”為“be done”

即由“shall do”或“will do”變為“shall done”或“will be done”。

例:主動:We shall build several big modern power plants in our city.

被動:Several big modern power plants will be built in our city.

我市將建立幾座大型現代化的發電廠。

(“shall do”中的“shall”要隨新主語變為“will”,“do”要變為“be done”。)

主動:I shall send my second boy to school next September.

被動:My second boy will be sent to school next September.

過年九月我將送我次子去讀書。

主動:In order to fool people cheaps and swindlers will make such bricks out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold.

被動:Such bricks will be made out of lead covering the "lead brick" with gold by swindlers.

磚塊外面會被騙子們鍍上一層金來做這樣的“金磚”。

主動:They will ask you a lot of strange questions.

被動:You will be asked a lot of strange questions by them.

他們將問你許多怪題。

被動句中的“by”引出的賓語,一般說來,如果是人稱代詞你、我、他等,均可省略,“someone no one”不由“by”來引出。如果是名詞不能省略,但當今英語也都可省略了。

主動:The Chinese people will make more space explorations in the future.

被動:More space explorations will be made in the future by the Chinese people.

中國人民在未來將進行更多的太空探索。

同樣:

After a period of use, the batteries should be changed. 電池使用一段時間後,應該更換。

Usually, the electricity is on for 24 hours. But tomorrow it will be cut off in the day time. 通常是整天供電的,但是明天早晨將會停電。

More peaceful uses will be found for nuclear explosives in the future. 在將來會發現更多的和平利用核爆炸的途徑。

More hard work will be needed to make this wonder come true in a short time from now. 為了在短時間內實現這個奇蹟,從現在開始需要做更多工作。

The machine will not be used again. 這機器不能再用了。

Will more gas be needed? 需要更多的煤氣嗎?

但如果是一般過去將來時如何處理呢?請記下面口訣:

一般過去將來時,過去某時將發生。

主動“should(would)”“do”,被動“be done”代原形。

將來進行無被動,現在完成時同。

主動:A few days ago we were still not quite sure whether we should carry out the new plan ahead of time.

被動:whether the new plan would be carried out ahead of time.

幾天前,我們還不能肯定能否應該提前執行新的計畫。

主動:I did not say that we would change the equipment.

被動:I did not say that the equipment would be changed.

我並沒說過我們將換掉那台設備。

主動:My supervisor told me that he would give me a special tutorial a few days ago.

被動:My supervisor told me that a special tutorial would be given to me a few days ago.

幾天前,我的導師說他將對我進行個別輔導。

主動:I never thought that he would bring me the information so early.

被動:I never thought that the information would be brought to me by him so early.

我沒想到他那么早就會把資料帶給我。

將來進行時現在完成時

將來進行時無被動,shall(will)be doing,

現在完成時同。have(has)been doing,

即將來進行時表示動作在將來某一時刻或某個階段正在進行,現在完成時表示某一行為發生在過去。

例;We hope your company will soon be sending an engineer over to check this equipment. (將來進行時)我們希望貴公司早些派一名工程師來檢查這台設備。

In a few minutes our passenger plane will be flying in the stratosphere.(將來進行時)幾分鐘後我們的客機將在同溫層中飛行。

We hope scientists will be tapping new energy sources to meet the need for power. 我們希望科學家們將發掘新的能源來滿足能量的需要。(將來進行時)

What will you be doing this evening? 今晚你將做什麼?(將來進行時)

I have been living in Anshan Since 1980.(現在完成時)1980年以來,我一直住在鞍山。

How long have you been studying English? 你學英語多久了?(現在完成時)

We have been waiting at the airport for the because of the thick fog. 由於大霧,我們已經在機場等了一整天了。(現在完成時)

Since then, applied mathematicians have been coping successfully with many problems in astronomy. 從那時以來,套用數學家成功地處理了許多天文學上的問題。

(現在完成時)以上均無被動態。

現在進行時過去進行時

現在進行時或過去進行時都是“be”的人稱、時和數的形式加“doing”。而被動態則是“be”加上“being done”的形式,“being”是不變的。現在進行時和過去進行時的被動態是被動態的重點,容易搞錯。例如:

主動:The workers are repairing the main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute.

被動:The main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute is being repaired by the workers.

工人們正在維修東北工學院主樓。

Two reservoirs are being built at the same time. 兩座水庫同時建造。

The nasty question is being considered by the committee members. 委員會的委員們正在考慮那個棘手的問題.

Equipment and foodstuffs are being flown to the flood stricken areas. 設備和食品正在被空運到災區。

The building of another fly-over is being planned. 他們在計畫修建另一座跨線橋。

We could not get through because the 19th Road was being repaired. 我們過不去,因為一九路正維修呢。

情態動詞

情、助、有、是妥安排,一律隨新主語變。

帶情態動詞和助動詞等的被動態如何處理比較複雜。要隨新的主語來變化,這些詞如“can, could; will, would; shall, should; may, might; must; ought to; need(需要);have to(不得不);be going to; to be to; used to; seem to; happen to等。例如:

主動:We must keep this inmind.

被動:This must be kept inmind.

我們必須把這個記在心裡。

主動:We can put the refrigerator in that place.

被動:The refrigerator can be put in that place.

我們可以把電冰櫃放在那個地方。

主動:We shall not use the washing machine again.

被動:The washing machine will not be used again.

我們不能再用那台洗衣機了。 原來的謂語“shall use”被動態中隨新主語變為“will”。

主動:We shall take more measures to prevent corrosion.

被動:More measures will be taken to prevent corrosion. (“shall”變“will”)

我們將採取更多的措施來防止腐蝕。

I ought to be criticized for it. 我應該為此受到批評。

All this has to be solved with great care. 這一切得認真解決。

The lobby is going to be rebuilt. 門廳將被重建。

The exhibition is to be opened tomorrow. 展覽會將在明日開放。

“may”加不定式的完成體或完成進行體表示“可能”,主要用於肯定句,決不能用在疑問句中。而“can”與不定式的完成體或完成進行體連用表示“可能”,只用於否定句和疑問句,不用於肯定句。但如果“can”或“may”的過去式即“could”與“might”與不定式完成體或完成進行體搭配時,可用於各種結構。肯、否、陳、疑,均可。

It can't have been lost in the post, can it?

它不可能是在郵局丟失的吧:(反意疑問句)

否定助後加“not”,疑問一助置主前。

在否定句的被動態中,否定副詞“not”一定加在第一助動詞之後,不放在別的助動詞之後。同樣在疑問句的被動態中,第一助動詞置於主語之前。

例:Why has(一助)not anything been(二助)done to end the strike?

“not”必須放在第一助動詞“has”之後,第一助動詞“has”必須放在主語“anything”之前。決不可寫成: why has not been anything done toendthe strike?或why has been not anything done to end the strike?

為什麼不採取些措施來結束罷工呢?

The exercise will not be done in class.

不可寫成:The exercise will be not done in class.

我們將不在課堂上作練習。

In what other way could(一助)information about Mars be(二助)obtained?

用什麼別的途徑能獲得火星的資料呢?

Why had he been imprisoned?

他為什麼入獄?

Need she be told about it?

需要告訴他嗎?

主語恰是疑問詞,直陳語序主在前

凡主語恰好是一個疑問詞或由疑問詞來修飾主語時,後面要用陳述語序。

例:What(主語)could be dropped from a satellite?

什麼東西會被從衛星上扔下?

What measures(主語)are being taken to develop this new science?(主語為疑問詞“what”所修飾)

什麼措施正在被採取以發展這門新的科技?

What kind of device(主語)is needed to make the control system simple?(主語為疑問詞所修飾)

需要什麼裝置來使控制系統簡化?

What has been done to improve the techniques?

什麼措施已經被採取以改進這些技術?(“what”是句子的主語)

應指出的是有的學生把We study diligently和She could see herself clearly in the mirror.都硬行變成被動了,殊不知不及物動詞通常是沒有被動態的。關於不及物動詞、反身代詞動詞、同源賓語動詞、系詞、感官使役動詞、短語動詞的被動態。

變被動句步驟

1、把原主動句中的賓語變為被動句的主語

2、把動詞變為被動形式即be +過去分詞,並注意其人稱和數隨主語的變化,而動詞的時態則保持不變。

3、原主動句的主語如需要則放在by後面以它的賓格形式出現(注代詞的賓格),如不需要則可省略。

4、其它的成分(定語、狀語)不變。

情態動詞

理解含情態動詞的被動語態的概念,含情態動詞的被動語態說明某個被動性動作所反映出的感情和態度。國中階段可用於被動語態的情態動詞有“can、may、must、need、should”等,分別表示“能夠被……”,“可以被……”,“必須被……”,“需要被……“,應該被……”等。

掌握含情態動詞的被動語態的不同句式的變換方法含情態動詞的被動語態的疑問句、否定句的變化均藉助於情態動詞完成。

(一)一般疑問句直接將陳述句被動語態中的情態動詞提前。如: Must this work be done at once?這項工作必須立即完成嗎? Should your homework be finished before six?你的家庭作業應在六點前完成嗎?

(二)特殊疑問句由疑問詞加上一般疑問句被動語態構成。如: When must this work be done?這工作必須在什麼時候完成? Where can the lost book be found?這本失蹤的書能在什麼地方被找到?

(三)反意疑問句藉助情態動詞構成附加疑問部分。如: This bridge can be built next year,can't it?這座橋能建成,是嗎? This book shouldn't be taken out of the library,should it?這本書不應被帶出圖書館,是嗎?

(四)否定句在情態動詞後面加上“not”或“never”即可,但“must”表“必要”時否定式為“needn't”。如:This work needn't be done at once.這項工作沒必要立即做。This dustbin shouldn't be put here.這個垃圾箱不應放在這兒。 三、含情態動詞的被動語態的一般疑問句的回答應保留原情態動詞,但“must”表“必須”時,其否定回答套用“needn't”、“need”表“必要”時,其肯定回答套用“must”。如: —Should my exercises be finished today?我的作業應在今天完成嗎? —Yes,they should.是的,應在今天完成。 (No,they shouldn't.不,不應在今天完成。) —Must his exercise book be handed in at once?他的練習本必須立即上交嗎? —Yes,it must.是的,必須立即上交。 (No,it needn't.不,不必立即上交。) —Need he be operated on at once?他必須立即手術嗎? —Yes,he must.是的,他必須。 (No,he needn't.不,他不必。)

不用情況

1)不及物動詞或動詞短語無被動語態(即多數的瞬間動詞):

appear, die(死亡),disappear(消失), end (vi. 結束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand

break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.

After the fire, very little remained of my house.

比較: rise, fall, happen是不及物動詞;raise, seat是及物動詞。

(錯)The price has been risen.

(對)The price has risen.

(錯)The accident was happened last week.

(對)The accident happened last week.

(錯)The price has raised.

(對)The price has been raised.

(錯)Please seat.

(對)Please be seated.

要想正確地使用被動語態,就須注意哪些動詞是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特別是一詞多義的動詞往往有兩種用法。解決這一問題唯有在學習過程中多留意積累。

2) 不能用於被動語態的及物動詞或動詞短語:

fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to

This key just fits the lock.

3)系動詞無被動語態(“keep”除外):

appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

It sounds good.

4)帶同源賓語的及物動詞,反身代詞,相互代詞,不能用於被動語態:

die, death, dream, live, life

She dreamed a bad dream last night.

5)當賓語是不定式時,很少用於被動語態。

(對)She likes to swim.

(錯)To swim is liked by her.

套用

一般用法

1.一般現在時的被動語態構成:is / am / are +及物動詞的過去分詞

Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

I am asked to study hard by my mother.

Knives are used for cutting things.

2.一般過去時的被動語態構成:was / were + 及物動詞的過去分詞

The new shop was built last year.

Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.

3.現在完成時的被動語態構成:has / have + been +及物動詞的過去分詞

This book has been translated into many languages.

Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

4.一般將來時的被動語態構成:will+ be + 及物動詞的過去分詞

A new hospital will be built in our city.

Many more trees will be planted next year.

5.含有情態動詞的被動語態構成:情態動詞+ be + 及物動詞的過去分詞

Young trees must be watered often.

Your mistakes should be corrected right now.

The door may be locked inside.

Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

6.現在進行時的被動語態構成:am / is / are + being +及物動詞的過去分詞

Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.→

My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

They are planting trees over there. →

Trees are being planted over there by them.

7.不定式的被動語態:to + be + 及物動詞的過去分詞

There are two books to be read. →

There are twenty more trees to be planted.

特殊用法

1.不及物動詞無被動語態。 如:happen, break down, come out......

What will happen in 100 years.

The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

2.有些動詞用主動形式表示被動意義。 如: write, sell, ride.....

This pen writes well.

This new book sells well.

3.感官動詞或使役動詞使用省略to的動詞不定式,主動語態中不帶“to”,但變為被動語態時,須加上“to”。

例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something

see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something

A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

4.如果是接雙賓語的動詞改為被動語態時,直接賓語(物)作主語,那么動詞後要用介詞,這個介詞是由與其搭配的動詞決定。

He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.

He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.

My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.

5.一些動詞短語用於被動語態時,動詞短語應當看作一個整體,而不能丟掉其中的介詞或副詞。

We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.

He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.

The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

構成

be+done.

帶雙賓語

語法語法

在用於被動結構時,有些動詞可以帶雙賓語。在這種情況下,主動結構中的間接賓語變為主語時,直接賓語仍然保留在謂語後面;直接賓語變為主語時,間接賓語前通常加上介詞for/to, etc.。

即:S+V+IO+DO→IO+ be done +DO→DO+ be done + prep. +IO

g. 1) My uncle gave mea gifton my birthday.

→I was givena gifton my birthday.

→A gift was given to me on my birthday.

We often hear him play guitar.

→He is often heard toplay guitar.

→Itis often heard from himto play guitar.

新興形式

Get+過去分詞也可以構成被動語態,用這種結構的句子側重於動作的結果而不是動作本身。如: The man got hurt on his way home. 那個男人在回家的路上受傷了。 How did the glass get broken? 杯子怎么破了?

著名學者周海中教授在論文《Get-Passive研究》中指出:Get+過去分詞的被動語態是一種新興的被動語態形式;相對來說它的使用還沒有Be+過去分詞構成的被動語態那么廣泛,一般限於口語和非正式書面語;但它卻有著用得愈來愈多的趨勢,是一種生氣蓬勃的語言現象。

特別提醒

有些動詞後跟不帶to的不定式作賓語補足語,但改為被動結構後要加上“to”。

例如:

We heard him singing in his room just now.

---He was heard to sing in his room just now.

剛才聽到他在房間中唱歌。

need doing something也表示被動

總結

被動語態的構成形式

被動語態的基本時態變化

被動語態通常為十種時態的被動形式,被動語態由“be+過去分詞”構成,be隨時態的變化而變化。以do為例,各種時態的被動語態形式為:

1 am/is/are +done (過去分詞)一般現在時

Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

2 has /have been done現在完成時

All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.

3 am/is /are being done現在進行時

A new cinema is being built here.

4 was/were done一般過去時

I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

5 had been done過去完成時

By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

6 was/were being done過去進行時

A meeting was being held when I was there.

7 shall/will be done一般將來時

Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

8 should/would be done過去將來時

The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.

9 shall/will have been done將來完成時(少用)

The project will have been completed before July.

10 should/would have been done過去將來完成時(少用)

He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon.

被動語態的特殊結構形式

1 帶情態動詞的被動結構。其形式為:情態動詞+be+過去分詞。

The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

2 有些動詞可以有兩個賓語,在用於被動結構時,可以把主動結構中的一個賓語變為主語,另一賓語仍然保留在謂語後面。通常變為主語的是間接賓語。

His mother gave him a present for his birthday.可改為He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

3 當“動詞+賓語+賓語補足語”結構變為被動語態時,將賓語變為被動結構中的主語,其餘不動。

Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette.可改為The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

4 在使役動詞have, make, get以及感官動詞see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等後面不定式作賓語補語時,在主動結構中不定式to要省略,但變為被動結構時,要加to。

Someone saw a stranger walk into the building.可改為A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

5 有些相當於及物動詞的動詞詞組,如“動詞+介詞”,“動詞+副詞”等,也可以用於被動結構,但要把它們看作一個整體,不能分開。其中的介詞或副詞也不能省略。

The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

非謂語動詞的被動語態

v.+ing形式及不定式to do也有被動語態(一般時態和完成時態)。

I don't like being laughed at in the public.

如何使用被動語態

學習被動語態時,不僅要知道被動語態的各種語法結構,還要知道在哪些情況中使用被動語態。

1 講話者不知道動作的執行者或不必說出動作的執行者(這時可省by短語)。

My bike was stolen last night.

2 藉助被動的動作突出動作的執行者。

I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should accept the offer.

3 為了更好地安排句子。

The well-known person got on the bus and was immediately recognized by people.(一個主語就夠了)

It is said that+從句及其他類似句型

一些表示“據說”或“相信”的動詞如believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think等可以用於句型“It+be+過去分詞+that從句”或“主語+be+過去分詞+to do sth.”。有:

It is said that…據說……

It is reported that…據報導……

It is believed that…大家相信……

It is hoped that…大家希望……

It is well-known that…眾所周知……

It is thought that…大家認為……

It is suggested that…據建議……

It is said that the boy has passed the national exam.(=The boy is said to have passed the national exam.)

四、謂語動詞的主動形式表示被動意義

1 英語中有很多動詞如break,catch,clean,drive,lock,open,sell,read,write,wash等,當它們被用作不及物動詞來描述主語特徵時,常用其主動形式表達被動意義,主語通常是物。

This kind of cloth washes well.

注意:主動語態表被動強調的是主語的特徵,而被動語態則強調外界作用造成的影響。試比較:The door won't lock.(指門本身有毛病)

The door won't be locked.(指不會有人來鎖門,指“門沒有鎖”是人的原因)

2 表示“發生、進行”的不及物動詞和短語,如:happen, last, take place, break out, come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out等以主動形式表示被動意義。

How do the newspapers come out?這些報紙是如何引出來的呢?

3 系動詞沒有被動形式,但有些表示感受、感官的連繫動詞feel, sound, taste, look, feel等在主系表結構中常以主動形式表示被動意義。

Your reason sounds reasonable.

非謂語動詞的主動形式表被動意義

在某些句型中可用動名詞和不定式的主動形式表被動意義

1 在need,want,require, bear等詞的後面,動名詞用主動形式表示被動意義,其含義相當於動詞不定式的被動形式。

The house needs repairing(to be repaired).這房子需要修理。

2 形容詞worth後面跟動名詞的主動形式表示被動含義,但不能跟動詞不定式;而worthy後面跟動詞不定式的被動形式。

The picture-book is well worth reading.(=The picture-book is very worthy to be read.)

3 動詞不定式在名詞後面作定語,不定式和名詞之間有動賓關係時,又和句中另一名詞或代詞構成主謂關係,不定式的主動形式表示被動含義。

I have a lot of things to do this afternoon.(to do與things是動賓關係,與I是主謂關係。)試比較:

I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? (此處用不定式的被動語態作定語表明you不是post動作的執行者。)

4 在某些“形容詞+不定式”做表語或賓語補足語的結構中,句子的主語或賓語又是動詞不定式的邏輯賓語時,這時常用不定式的主動形式表達被動意義。這些形容詞有nice,easy,fit,hard,difficult,important,impossible,pleasant,interesting等。例This problem is difficult to work out .(可看作to work out省略了for me).

5 在too… to…結構中,不定式前面可加邏輯主語,所以套用主動形式表示被動意義。

This book is too expensive (for me) to buy.

6 在there be…句型中,當動詞不定式修飾名詞作定語時,不定式用主動式作定語,重點在人,用被動形式作定語,重點在物。例There is no time to lose(to be lost).(用to lose可看成for us to lose;用to be lost,誰lost time不明確。)

7 在be to do結構中的一些不定式通常套用主動表主動,被動表被動。然而,由於古英語的影響,下列動詞rent, blame, let等仍用不定式的主動形式表示被動意義。

Who is to blame for starting the fire?

介詞in,on等+名詞構成介詞短語表被動意義

表示方位的介詞與含動作意義的名詞合用,含被動之義,其意義相當於該名詞相應動詞的被動形式,名詞前一般不用冠詞。

1 “under +名詞”結構,表示“某事在進行中”。常見的有:under control(受控制), under treatment(在治療中), under repair(在修理中), under discussion(在討論中), under construction(在施工中)。

The building is under construction( is being constructed).

2 “beyond+名詞”結構,“出乎……勝過……、範圍、限度”。常見的有:beyond belief (令人難以置信),beyond one’s reach(鞭長莫及),beyond one’s control(無法控制),beyond our hope.我們的成功始料不及。

The rumour is beyond belief(=can’t be believed).

3 “above+名詞”結構,表示“(品質、行為、能力等)超過……、高於……”。

His honest character is above all praise.=His honest character cannot be praised enough.

4 “for+名詞”結構,表示“適於……、為著……”。如:for sale(出售), for rent(出租)等。

That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold).

5 “in+名詞”結構,表示“在……過程中或範圍內”常見的有:in print(在印刷中),in sight(在視野範圍內),等。

The book is not yet in print.(=is not yet printed)

重要考點

將語態與主謂一致結合起來命題

1. All the employees except the manager ______to work online at home.

A. encourages B. encourage C. is encouraged D. are encouraged

解析:主語是all the employees(複數) ,而不是the manager,排除答案A和C;又因all the employees與encourage是被動關係,要用被動語態,排除B,故選D。

2. A library with five thousand books _______to the nation as a gift.

A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered

解析:a library是offer的承受者,要用被動語態,排除B和D;又因主語(library) 是單數,排除C;故選A。注意:with five thousand books是a library是定語。

將語態與虛擬語氣結合起來命題

—Don’t you think it necessary that he ______ to Miami but to New York?

— I agree, but the problem is ______ he has refused to.

A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; that

C. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what

解析:因he與send是被動關係,排除D;又因it (is) necessary後的that從句的謂語要用“(should+) 動詞原形”,排除選項A;答句中的表語從句不缺任何句子成分,用that;故選B。

將語態與倒裝結合起來命題

Only after my friend came ______.

A. did the computer repaired B. be repaired the computer

C. was the computer repaired D. the computer was repaired

解析:因the computer與repair是被動關係,排除A;又因only加狀語置於句首,要用部分倒裝,排除選項D和B;故選C。

將固定短語中的名詞作主語來增加句子理解難度

被動語態被動語態

Good care must ______babies, particularly while they are ill.

A. take B. take of C. be taken D. be taken of

解析:由固定短語take good care of(好好照看) 是可知,good care與take是被動關係,排除A和B;選項C中又漏掉了of;故選D。

在語境中將語態與時態結合起來命題

1. The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people ______to eat more fruit and vegetables.

A. persuade B. will persuade C. be persuaded D. are persuaded

解析:因people與persuade是被動關係,排除A和B。又因為主語是一般將來時,條件句中用一般現在時,所以選D。

2. Hundreds of jobs ______if the factory closes.

A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lost

解析:因lose與jobs是被動關係,排除A和D;又因條件狀語從句是一般現在時,主句中的謂語動詞應當是一般將來時,故選B。

3. With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth ______each year.

A. were washed away B. is being washed away

C. are washing away D. are being washed away

解析:因good earth(沃土) 與wash away(沖走) 是被動關係,排除C;又因quantities of…作主語,謂語動詞用複數,排除B;指近階段(近些年) 正在發生的事,用現在進行時,排除A;故選D。

4. —The window is dirty. —I know. It ______ for weeks.(www.yygrammar.com)

A. hasn’t cleaned B. didn’t clean C. wasn’t cleaned D. hasn’t been cleaned

解析:由is和for weeks可知,要用現在完成時態,排除B和C;又因It (The window) 與clean是被動關係,要用被動語態,所以選D。

5. —George and Lucy got married last week. Did you go to the wedding?

—No, I ______. Did they have a big wedding?

A. was not invited B. have not been invited

C. hadn’t been invited D. didn’t invite

解析:因為I與invite是被動關係,又因為邀請應當發生在結婚之前,got married是過去,invite就該是過去的過去,所以用過去完成時的被動語態,只有C正確。

6. The mayor of Beijing says that all construction work for the Beijing Olympics _____ by 2006.

A. has been completed B. has completed

C. will have been completed D. will have completed

解析:因“by+將來時間”通常與將來完成時連用,所以由by 2006可排除A和B;又因為work與complete是被動關係,所以要被動語態,只有C正確。

7. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If not, you may ______run over by a car.

A. have B. get C. become D. turn

解析:you與run over是被動關係,選項中只有get才可與過去分詞run構成被動語態,故選B。

相關詞條

相關搜尋

熱門詞條