英語八大時態

英語動詞的時態

1. 一般現在時

一般現在時的形式
是以動詞的原形表示的,當主語為第三人稱單數時,做謂語的動詞原形後要加上詞尾-s or -es, 其構成方式列表如下:
情況 構成 例詞
一般情況 詞尾加-s Reads, writes
以ch,sh,s,x,o結尾的詞 詞尾加-es Teaches,washes,guesses, fixes, goes
以輔音字母+Y 結尾的詞 變Y為I,再加-es Tries, carries
但是,動詞to be 和to have 的一般現在時的形式特殊如下:
一般動詞的詞形變化 To be 的詞形變化 To have 的詞形變化
I know it I am a student I have a pen.
You know it. You are a student You have a pen
He (she) knows it. He (she) is a student. He (she)has a pen.
We (you,they) know it. We (you,they) are students. We (you,they) have pens.
一般現在時的功用
1. 表示一直發生的事情,經常發生的動作:
Nurses look after patients in hospitals.
Excuse me, do you speak English?
I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.
It often rains in summer in Beijing.
2. 表示客觀事實或者真理:
Birds fly.
The earth goes around the sun.
3. 談論時間表、旅程表等,如:
What time does the film begin?
The football match starts at 8 o’clock.
Tomorrow is Thursday.
4. 談論籍貫國籍等,如:
Where do you come from?
I come from China. 你是哪國人?我是中國人。
Where do you come from?
I come from Guangzhou. 你是哪裡人?我是廣州人。
5. 詢問或者引用書籍、通知或新近接到的信箋內容,如:
What does that notice say?
What does Ann say in her letter?
She says she’s coming to Beijing next week.
Shakespears says, “Neither a borrower or a lender be.”
莎士比亞說:“既不要向人借錢,也不要借錢給別人。”

一般過去時

一般過去時是表示在說話時間以前發生的動作或者狀態的動詞時態,它是英語時態體系中最重要的時態之一。
1) 一般過去時規則動詞的構成形式:
規則動詞在其原形後面加-ed:
to work-worked
以字母e結尾的規則動詞,只加-d:
to love---loved
對所有人稱均無詞形變化。
否定式均由did not + 動詞原形構成
I / you / he / she / they / we did not work.
疑問式均由 did + 主語 + 動詞原形 構成
拼寫注意:
情況 變化 例詞
動詞為單音節,以一個元音字母和一個輔音字母結尾 輔音字母雙寫,再加-ed Stop-stoppedAdmit-admitted
以y結尾的動詞,在y 前為輔音字母時 Y 變為 I ,加 - ed Carry -carriedHurry -hurried
以y 結尾的動詞,在y 前為元音字母時 加-ed Obey-obeyedEnjoy---enjoyed
在英語當中有一部分動詞的過去式變化形式是不規則的,這類動詞被稱為不規則動詞。總數大概不過200多個,但是使用頻率很高。主要分成三類:
1》 第一類不規則動詞的三種形式同形,如:
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
hurt hurt hurt
shut shut shut
set set set
注意,有些動詞的過去式與過去分詞有兩中形式,如:
bet bet / betted bet / betted
wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
wet wet / wetted wet / wetted
2》 第二類不規則動詞的過去式和過去分詞同形,如:
bend bent bent
bring brought brought
catch caught caught
hide hid hid / hidden
get got got/ gotten(AmE)
lead led led
3》 第三類不規則動詞的原形、過去式過去分詞都不相同,如:
原形 過去式 過去分詞
begin began begun
break broke broken
forbid forbade forbidden
grow grew grown
ring rang rung
wake woke / waked woken / waked
此外還有少數不規則動詞的過去分詞與原形相同,如:
come came come
become became become
run ran run
一般過去時的功用
1) 表示一個沒指明具體時間的過去的行動,如:
He worked in that bank for four years. (沒說明起始時間,但是現在不在那裡工作了)。
They once saw Deng Xiaopin.
Did you ever hear backstreet boy sing?
2) 表示在過去特定的時間結束的行動,如:
When did you meet him?
I met him yesterday.
When we lived in Phoenix, we studied at Arizona State University.
Where have you been?
I’ve been to the opera.
Did you enjoy it?
3) 表示過去的習慣
He always carried an umbrella.
They never drank wine.

現在完成時

現在完成時由to have 的現在時+過去分詞構成:
肯定式 否定式 疑問式 否定疑問式
I have worked I have not worked Have I worked? Have I not worked?
You have worked You havenot worked Have you worked? Have you not worked?
He (she)has worked. He(she)has not worked. Has he(she) worked? Has he(she) not worked?
We(you / they) have worked. We (you / they) have not worked. Have we (you / they) worked? Have we (you / they) not worked?
緊縮形式
現在完成時的功用
現在完成時可以說成是兼有現在與過去意義的一種複合時態。它與現在有密切聯繫,如:
------Oh,dear, I’ve forgotten her name.
和現在的聯繫就是 I don’t remember her name now.
------Fort has gone to Canada.
和現在的聯繫就是 He is not here. He is in Canada now.
1) 表示延續到現在的動作 (有時是總計做了多少次等)。
How many times have you been to the United States?
She really loves that film. She has seen it eight times.
Tom has lived in Now York all his life.
2) 表示開始與過去而在說話時刻結束的行動,如:
I haven’t seen you for ages. 我好久沒見到你了。(說話時刻已經見到了)
This room hasn’t been cleaned for months. (也許從說話開始時刻就要打掃它了)
3) 表示過去的動作對現在造成的影響,如:
The window has broken.
4) 和最高級連用,表示到現在為止是最……的
What a boring film! It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.
Is it a thick book?------Yes, it is the thickest book I’ve ever read.
5) 和句型 This is the first time…, It’s the first time 連用,如:
This is the first time he has driven a car.
(相當於 he has never driven a car before.)
Is this the first time you’ve been in hospital?
Professor Johnson has lost his passport again. It’s the second time he has lost it.
6) 和ever, never, yet, just, already 等副詞連用,如:
Have you ever eaten French cheese?
We have never had a private car.
Has it stopped raining yet? (yet 表示期待雨停止)
Would you like something to eat?
No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch.
Don’t forget to mail the letter, will you?
I’ve already mailed it. (already 表示比預料的要快)
7)與since 連用,since 表示與某一時刻或從句連用,表示“從那一刻到說話時為止”,它總是與完成時連用,如:
She has been here since 6 o’clock.
He hasn’t been himself since the accident. (那次事故後,他從未完全康復)
Since I was a child I have lived in England.
一般過去時與現在完成時的比較
1) 過去時僅僅表示過去,現在完成時還表示與現在的關係,如:
He has lost his key.
He lost his key.
2) 與現在無關的或者過去很久的歷史事件不能用現在完成時
The Chinese invented printing.
Shakespear wrote Hamlet.
3)如果說明動作有特定的過去時間,就不能用現在完成時,如:
Did you see the film on television last night?
Tom lost his key yesterday.
詢問某事發生的具體時間或者地點時(when , what time, where), when , what time, where), 用一般過去時,如:
What time did they arrive?
When and where were you born?
比較:
Have you see Ann this moring? ( 說話時仍為上午)
Did you see Ann this morning? ( 說話時為下午)
Jack has lived in London for six years. 還在倫敦住
Jack lived in London for six years. 先不住倫敦了
I have never played golf in my life.
I didn’t play golf when I was on holiday last summer.

現在進行時

現在進行時是由助動詞to be 的現在時 + 現在分詞構成:
肯定式 否定式 疑問式
I am working.You are working.He (she) is working.We (you,they) are working. I am not working.You are not working.He (she) is not working.We (you,they) are not working. Am I working?Are you working?Is he (she) working?Are we (you,they) working?
現在分詞的構成,是在動詞原形上加-ing, 但是應該注意:
情況 變化 例詞
動詞以單個e 結尾 去掉e, 加 ing Love _lovingArgue _ arguing
動詞以 -ee結尾 直接加 ing Agree_ agreeingSee _ seeing
動詞為單音節:以單一元音字母 + 單一輔音字母結尾 輔音字母雙寫,再加 ing Hit _ hittingRun _runningStop _ stopping
動詞為雙音節或者多音節:最後一個音節為重讀音節,以單一元音字母 + 單一輔音字母結尾 輔音字母雙寫,再加 ing Be’gin be’ginningAd’mit ad’mitting
以 y 結尾的動詞 直接加 ing Carry carryingEnjoy enjoying
現在進行時的功用
1) 表示說話時正在發生或者進行的動作
Please don’t make so much noise, I’m studying.
Let’s get out. It isn’t raining any more.
2) 表示在現在相對較長一段時間內正在進行的動作,但是說話一刻不一定在做的動作
Have you heard about Tom? He is building his own house.
David is teaching English and learning Chinese in Beijing.
這些動作,在說話時並不一定在發生或進行,而是在包括說話的一剎那在內的一段時間內發生、進行的。
3)表示最近的確定的安排
Ann is coming tomorrow.
Oh, is she? What time is she arriving?
At 10:15.
Are you meeting her at the station?
I can’t. I’m working tomorrow morning.
以上句子也可以用be going to (do) 的形式來表示。但是談論已確定的安排時候,用現在進行時態顯得更加自然,除非受到動詞的功能的限制。在此,切不可用will, 如:
Alex is getting married next month. 不能用 will get married.
4) 和always 連用表示某種情緒,可能是厭煩也可能是讚揚,如:
Tom is always going away for weekends.
My husband is always doing homework.
有些動詞是表示一種狀態而不是動作,一般不用於進行時。例如,我們一般不說 I am knowing, 而說 I know. 常見的這類動詞有:
want like hate know see hear believe understand seem
think(相信) suppose remember need love realize mean forget prefer have (擁有)belong
To understand is to accept. 理解就是接受
Do you like Beijing?
Do you see the rainbow?
I remember him very well.
I think I understand what he wants.
一般現在時和現在進行時的比較
一般現在時表示的是一般、重複的動作或者事情
現在進行時表示說話時或說話前後正在發生的動作或事情,如:
Tom plays tennis every Sunday.
Where’s Tom? -------He is playing tennis.
What do you do? 你是乾什麼工作的?
What are you doing here? 你在這裡乾什麼?
一般現在時是表示經久的情況,而現在進行時表示的是暫時的,如:
My parents live in Shanghai. They have been there for 50 years.
She’s living with some friends until she can find an apartment.

過去進行時

過去進行時的構成形式為:
I / he /she was
We / they / you were + 動詞的現在分詞
過去進行時的功用
1) 表示在過去某個時間後者某段時間正在進行的動作,如:
When I rang him up, he was having dinner.
This time last year I was living in Shanghai.
What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night?
2) 過去進行時和一般過去時連用,表示在一個動作發生的過程中,發生了另一個動作,如:
It was raining when I got up.
I fell asleep when I was watching television.
3) 過去一般時所說明的動作是已經完成的,而過去進行時不表示正在進行的動作一定會完成,如:
Tom was cooking the dinner.
Tom cooked the dinner.

現在完成進行時

其構成形式如下:
I / we / they have
He / she / it has been + 動詞的現在分詞
功用如下:
1) 表示一個在過去開始而在最近剛剛結束的行動,如:
Ann is very tired. She has been working hard.
Why are you clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?
2) 表示一個從過去開始但仍在進行的行動,如:
It has been raining for two hours. (現在還在下)
Jack hasn’t been feeling very well recently.
3) 表示一個從過去開始延續到現在,可以包括現在在內的一個階段內,重複發生的行動,如:
She has been playing tennis since she was eight.
4) 現在完成時強調動作行為的結果、影響,而現在完成進行時只強調動作行為本身,如:
Tom’s hands are very dirty. He has been repairing the car.
The car is going again now. Tom has repaired it. 過去將來時構成
一般過去將來時是由"should/would+動詞原形"構成的。
HeaskedmeyesterdaywhenIshouldleaveforParis.
昨天他問我什麼時候動身去巴黎。
Theywantedtoknowhowtheywouldfinishthehomeworkearlier.
他們想知道怎樣才能早一點兒完成家庭作業。
用法
一般過去將來時的出發點是過去,即從過去某一時刻看以後要發生的動作或狀態。
①一般過去將來時常用於間接引語中
Hesaidtheywouldarrangeaparty.
他說他們將安排一個晚會。
IaskedifhewouldcomeandfixmyTVset.
我問他是否來幫我修電視機。
②一般過去將來時可用來表示非真實的動作或狀態
IfIhadachancetostudyabroad,IwouldstudyatCambridgeUniversity.
如果我有機會出國學習的話,我就會去劍橋大學。
Iwishhewouldgowithmetothecinematonight.
今晚他能和我一起去看電影就好了。
過去將來時間其他表達法
①was/weregoingto+動詞原形
Hesaidthathewasgoingtoliveinthecountrywhenheretired.
他說他退休後要住在農村。
Theythoughtitwasgoingtorain.
他們認為天要下雨了。
②was/were+動詞-ing形式
Nobodyknewwhethertheguestswerecoming.
沒人知道客人們是否要來。
Iwastoldthatthetrainwasleavinginafewminutes.
我被告知火車幾分鐘後就要開了。
③was/were+動詞不定式
Shesaidshewastocleantheclassroomafterschool.
她說她放學後要打掃教室。
ItwasreportedthatanotherbridgewastobebuiltacrosstheYangtseRiver.
據報導長江上將要再建一座大橋。
注意:
"was/weregoingto+動詞原形"或"was/were+動詞不定式完成式"可表示未能實現的過去將來時間的動作。
LastSundayweweregoingtovisittheGreatWall,butitrained.
上星期天我們本想去遊覽長城的,但卻下雨了。(沒有去成)
Iwastohavehelpedwiththeperformance,butIgotfluthedaybefore.
我是打算幫忙演出的,但前天我感冒了。(沒有幫上忙)
④was/wereabouttodo
"was/wereabouttodo"表示說話的瞬間就會發生的動作。
Ifeltsomethingterriblewasabouttohappen.
我覺得有可怕的事要發生了。
⑤was/wereonthepointofdoing
I'mgladyouhavecome.Iwasonthepointofcallingyou,butyou'vesavedmethetroublenow.
很高興你來了。我正準備給你打電話,現在你省去我這個麻煩了。
提示:
"beabouttodo"和"beonthepointofdoing"結構一般不與表示將來的時間狀語連用,但後面可以接when引導的分句。
Iwasabouttostartwhenitsuddenlybegantorain.
我正要動身天突然下雨了。
一般將來時A.will,shall表示一般將來時
一般將來時由“will/shall+動詞原形”構成。一般來說,shall用於第一人稱,will用於第二、三人稱。但在現代英語中,shall常被will所代替,可以說Iwillgo和Wewillgo。
一般將來時的用法
1.表示將要發生的動作或存在的狀態,常與表示將來的時間狀語連用。如nextweek,tomorrow,thisevening,inamonth,afterclass,verysoon等。如:
Iwillgoswimmingthisafternoon.今天下午我要去游泳。
2.表示將來經常發生的動作。如:
Fromnowon,IwillcomeforthenewspapereveryMonday.
從現在起我將每星期一來取報紙。
B.begoingto表示一般將來時
“begoingto+動詞原形”表示計畫、打算做某事。
句式句型例句
肯定句主語+am/is/are
goingto+動詞原形+其他
I’mgoingtoplayfootballthisafternoon.今天下午我打算踢足球。
否定句主語+am/is/are+
not+goingto+動詞原形
+其他
Theboysaren’tgoingtostayathomeandwatchTVtomorrow.那些男孩子們明天不準備呆在家裡看電視。
一般疑問句Am/Is/Are+主語+
goingto+動詞原形+其他?
Aretheygoingtoswimthis
afternoon?他們今天下午要去游泳嗎?

現在完成時和過去完成時區別大解析

完成時,通常理解即為“發生並且完成”會用的時態;時態難區別,對於這種都發生在過去的時態更加難以區別,首先來定義一下兩個時態的定義:
現在完成時:現在完成時表示到說話時為止(或到現在為止)已經發生或完成了(不一定結束)的動作或狀態。
過去完成時:表示過去某一時間或動作以前已經發生或完成了的動作。它表示動作發生的時間是“過去的過去”。表示發生在過去的動作對過去的某一點造成的某種影響或結果,用來指定在另一個過去行動之前就已經完成了的一個事件。
但是究竟這兩個時態有什麼具體關聯,下面通過一些例子和解析具體看一下:
1.過去完成時是與現在完成時相當的過去式:
現在完成時:Annhasjustleft.Ifyouhurryyou’llcatchher.(安剛剛走。如果你快一點,就能追上她。)
過去完成時:WhenIarrivedAnnhadjustleft.(我到的時候,安剛剛離開。)
但是,過去完成時不像現在完成時那樣限於表達未指明時間的動作,因此可以說:Hehadlefthiscaseonthe4∶40train.(他把手提箱丟在4點40分的火車上了。)
2.現在完成時可以和since/for/always等詞連用,表示一個開始於過去並仍在繼續或剛剛結束的動:
與此同理,過去完成時也可以用來表示在所說的過去某一時刻之前就已開始的動作。
1)在該時刻仍然在繼續。
例如:BillwasinuniformwhenImethim.Hehadbeenasoldierfortenyears.(我遇到比爾的時候,他身穿軍服。那時他已經當了十年兵了。)
2)在該時刻停止或剛剛停止。
例如:Theoldoaktree,whichhadstoodinthechurchyardfor300years,suddenlycrashedtotheground.(屹立在教堂墓地上已300百年之久的老橡樹突然間嘩啦一聲巨響倒在地上。)
但應注意,過去完成時還可以用來表示:
3)在所說時刻之前某一時候停止的動作。
例如:Hehadservedinthearmyfortenyears;thenheretiredandmarried.(他在軍隊里服役十年,後來退伍並結了婚。)
3.過去完成時也是一般過去時的過去時,用來表示敘述者或主語在過去的某一時刻回顧更早的動作:
例如:HemetherinParisin1977.Hehadlastseenhertenyearsbefore.Herhairhadbeengreythen;nowitwaswhite.(1977年他在巴黎遇見了她。他上一次見到她是十年之前。那時她的頭髮是灰白的,這時已經全白了。)

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