比較級

比較級

在形容詞或副詞前加more(如 more natural,more clearly )或加後綴-er(newer,sooner)。典型的是指形容詞或副詞所表示的質、量或關係的增加。英語句子中,將比較兩個主體的方法叫做“比較句型”。其中,像“A比B更……”的表達方式稱為比較級。組成句子的方式是將形容詞或副詞變化成比較級的形態。

構成

比較級比較級
一、形容詞級的構成

1. 單音節形容詞的比較級以及以-ly, -er, -ow結尾的形容詞在詞尾加-er;以e結尾的形容詞在詞尾直接加-r構成。dark→darker; quick→quicker; early→earlier; clever→cleverer; simple→simpler; narrow→narrower。

2. 多音節形容詞的比較級在其前加more構成。important→more important; beautiful→more beautiful。

3.表語形容詞以及由分詞變來的形容詞,在其前加more構成。afraid →more afraid; interesting→more interesting; pleased→more pleased。

4. 少數形容詞的比較級是不規則的。

good→better; bad→worse; far→farther/ further。

用法

一般

1.表示"比...更",用比較級形容詞+than+比較成分,than後主詞的述語動詞往往省略,非正式用法的than後的人稱代名詞可用受格。

Heisyoungerthanme.

他比我年輕

Iamabetterswimmerthanhe(him).

我游泳比他好。

2.表示"較...低;不及..."用less+原級形容詞+than+比較成分。

Iamlessyoungthanhe(is).

我不比他年輕。

3.表示兩者之中"較...",用the+比較級+ofthetwo。

Thisoneisthebiggerofthetwohouses.

這所房子是兩座房子中較大的。

4.定冠詞或指示形容詞+比較級+名詞表示比較。

ThetallerboyisJohn.

那個身材較高的男孩子是約翰。

5.有少數以ior結尾的形容詞,如inferior(次於),junior(年幼的;下級的),posterior(之後),prior(之前),senior(年長的,上級的),superior(優於)等本身就有比較的意思,常與介系詞to連用。

Thismethodissuperiortothatone.

這種方法優於那種方法。

6.比較形容詞可以被副詞如alittle(一點),much(得多),even(更加),still(更加),far(...的多)等修飾,但不可用very修飾。

翻譯:現在的生活簡單得多了。

(誤)Lifeisveryeasierthanitwastwentyyearsago.

(正)Lifeisverymucheasierthanitwastwentyyearsago.

特殊

1.nomore…than…與。。。一樣不。。。

notmore…than…沒有。。。那樣。。。,不如。。。

notless…than…不亞於。。。

2.morethan…不止,僅僅,非常,極其Thismorethansatisfiedme.

3.morethanalittle非常

4.notmorethan不多於no(notany)morethan不過,僅僅

5.nolessthan有。。。之多,多達notlessthan至少,不下於

6.neithermorenorlessthan恰好,不多不少,簡直,和。。。完全一樣

7.betterthan多於,超過Itisbetterthan20kmtothestation.

8.(in)lessthannotime立即,一會兒

9.(be)little/nobetterthan實際上,簡直就是

10.nothinglessthan完全是,和。。。一模一樣

11.allthemore越發,更加

12.any(the)less較小/更小一些,小的

13.allthebetter更好,更加

14.somuchthebetter/worse(forsb./sth.)甚至更好/更壞

15.goonebetter(thansb./sth.)勝過。。。一籌

16.more…than…與其說。。。不如說。。。

17.wouldsooner/rather…than與其。。。寧願

18.(be)morelike…than不像。。。倒像

19.rather…than…/ratherthan寧可。。。而不

20.otherthan除了。。。,除。。。之外

21.rather…thanotherwise不是別的而是

22.no/noneotherthan正是,除。。。之外無其他

23.nomore不再,不復存在,也不,也沒有

24.lessthan不。。。

25.moreoftenthanno經常,多半

26.seemore/lessofsomeone更常/少見;再/少見到。。。

27.none+the+比較級毫不。。。,毫無。。。

28.haveseenbetterdays情況轉壞

29.thinkbetterofsth.改變。。。的念頭

30.forbetteror(for)worse無論好壞,同甘共苦

31.allthebetter因。。。而更加

32.morethanmeetstheeye/ear另有隱情,並非表面那么簡單的

33.Moreismeantthan,meetstheear.意在言外

34.Thereismore(toit)thanmeetstheeyes.現象背後有文章

基本句型

(一) 原級比較

1. 由“...as + 形容詞 + as...”或“...as + 形容詞 + 名詞 + as...”構成。

My grandpa is as energetic as a young man.

Exercise is as useful a way as any other to loseunwantedweight.

I try to find as much information as I can about what happened.

2. 由“...not so (as) + 形容詞 + as...”或“...not so (as) + 形容詞 + 名詞 + as...”構成。

Luckily the weather was not so wet as it is today.

(二)不同級比較

1. 由“……形容詞比較級 + than...”構成。

He is more concerned about others than about himself.

2. 由“...many / much more + 可數 / 不可數名詞 + than...”

My friend earned much more money than I did last year.

特殊句型

1. “比較級 + and + 比較級”或“more and more / less and less + 原級”結構表示“越來越……”的意思,與這類結構搭配的常用動詞有grow, get, become等。

She felt herself becoming more and more nervous.

As the winter is drawing near, it's getting colder and colder.

2. the + 比較級 + of the two + 名詞。

Jane is the taller of the two children in our family.

3. “the + 比較級……,the + 比較級……”,表示“越……,越……”。

The more magazines you sell, the more money you will get.

4. “否定 + 比較級” 相當於最高級。

— Wait until we get a satisfactory reply, will you?

— I couldn't agree more. The idea sounds great to me.

5. “a + 比較級 + 名詞(than...)” 結構常出現在以never構成的完成時態的動詞後面。

How beautifully she sings!I have never heard a better voice.

6. 倍數表示法:...times as + 形容詞原級 + as...;

...times + 形容詞比較級 + than...;...times the + 性質名詞 + of...。

The dining hall is three times as large as that one.

The dining hall is three times larger than that one.

The dining hall is three times the size of that one.

注意問題

1. 為了避免重複, 常用the one代替單數可數名詞, the ones, those 代替複數名詞, that 代替單數或不可數名詞。

2. 當比較對象屬於同一範圍時,需使用other來排除自身,否則會造成與自身相比較的矛盾。

Canada is larger than any other country in North America.

4. “no + 形容詞的比較級 + than”結構表達對兩者均否定。

Don't be proud so early. You are no better than me.

5. 比較級前面可以用even, still, yet , any, much, rather, a little, a lot, by far等修飾語用以加強語氣或表示比較程度。

To tell you the truth, my boyfriend is much older than me.

考題思路

根據句中的關鍵字答題

1. The new group of students is better-behaved than the other group who stayed here ______.

A. early B. earlier C. earliest D. the earliest

【解析】答案選B。做此題的關鍵字是new,即把“新來的學生”與“早些時候呆在這兒的學生”進行比較。全句意為:新來的這群學生比早些時候呆在這兒的那些學生表現得更好些。

2. —Do you need any help, Lucy?

—Yes, the job is ______ I could do myself.

A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than

【解析】答案選B。做此題要抓的關鍵字是yes,由於答話者對問話者的“你需要幫助嗎?”作了肯定回答,說明答話者獨自完成工作有困難,故填more than。

3. Of the two coats, I’d choose the ______ one to spare some money for a book.

A. cheapest B. cheaper C. more expensive D. most expensive

【解析】答案選B。關鍵字是句中的two,因是兩者比較,故用比較級,可將答案鎖定在B和C之間;再根據句意,排除C。

通過分析的隱含意思答題

1. There is an oldproverb, “Love me, love my dog. ” But there is ______ wisdom in this: “Love me, love my book.”

A. some B. much C. more D. most

【解析】答案選C。這道題出得非常巧妙,句中既沒有顯示比較級的關鍵字,也沒有暗示用比較級的than。而是將“Love me, love my dog”與“Love me, love my book”兩句進行比較,要求考生根據這兩句話的內容確定哪句話更有wisdom。

2. With April 18’s railwaySpeedUP, highway and air transport will have tocompetewith ______ service for passengers.

A. good B. better C. best D. the best

【解析】答案選B。句子大意為:由於鐵路提速了,所以高速公路和航空業要提高服務質量來競爭客源。因將“高速公路和航空”與“鐵路”比較,故用比較級。

3. The melonThe smithsserved at dinner would have tasted ______ if it had been put in thefridgefor a little while.

A. good B. better C. best D. well

【解析】B。題目中將“放入冰櫃中冷凍”與“不放入冰櫃中冷凍”作比較,故用比較級。句意為:史密斯家人晚餐時上的甜瓜若能放入冰櫃中冷凍一下味道會更好些。

4. Speaking of all the songs he has written, I think this is probably his ______ one.

A. better-known B. well-known C. best-known D. most-known

【解析】C。因為是從他所寫的所有歌中選出一首來比較,故用最高級。

根據相關的修飾關係答題

1. After two years’ research, we now have a ______ better understanding of the disease.

A. very B. far C. fairly D. quite

【解析】B。這四個副詞中,通常只有far可用於修飾比較。註:quite有時也可用於修飾比較better,但它只用於表示“身體康復”,不用於其他意義。

2. Work gets done ______ when people do it together, and the rewards are higher too.

A. easily B. very easy C. more easily D. easier

【解析】C。根據題意可知,說話者是將 when people do it together 和 when people don’t do it together 這兩種情況比較,故選比較級。注意不要選 D,因為在此題是要用副詞修飾動詞,不能用形容詞。另外,根據句末的 higher too 也可知道此題是考查比較級。

重要考點

一、考查比較等級的基本用法

1. Of the two sisters, Betty is _________ one, and she is also the one who loves to be quiet. (安徽卷)

A. a younger B. a youngest C. the younger D. the youngest

【解析】答案選C。根據句中的of the two sisters可知,此題涉及的是兩者比較,故用比較級;另外,由於是特指兩者中的一個,故其前用定冠詞,不用不定冠詞。

2. Of the two coats, I’d choose the _________ one to spare some money for a book. (四川卷)

A. cheapest B. cheaper C. more expensive D. most expensive

【解析】答案選B。因是兩者比較,故用比較級,可將答案鎖定在B和C之間;再根據句意,排除C。

3. Speaking of all the songs he has written, I think this is probably his _________ one. (全國卷II)

A. better-known B. well-known C. best-known D. most-known

【解析】答案選C。因為是從他所寫的所有歌中選出一首來比較,故用最高級。

二、在語境中考查比較等級的用法

1. I don’t think this film is by far the most boring. I have seen _________. (江西卷)

A. better B. worse C. the best D. the worst

【解析】答案選B。既然前文說“這不是最最煩人的電影”,那么下文說的肯定就“還有更糟的”,故用worse。有意思的是,2006年的這道江西卷的考題與下面這道2004年的湖南卷極為相似:

That doesn’t sound very frightening. Paul, I’ve seen _________. What did you like most about the film? (湖南卷)

A. better B. worse C. best D. worst

由前句“這聽起來並不十分令人恐懼”可知,說話人曾見過比這個更令人恐懼的事,所以用比較級worse。

2. The new group of students is better-behaved than the other group who stayed here _________. (北京卷)

A. early B. earlier C. earliest D. the earliest

【解析】答案選B。做此題的關鍵字是new,即把“新來的學生”與“早些時候呆在這兒的學生”進行比較。全句意為:新來的這群學生比早些時候呆在這兒的那些學生表現得更好些。

3. There is an old proverb, “Love me, love my dog. ” But there is _________ wisdom in this: “Love me, love my book.” (湖南卷)

A. some B. much C. more D. most

【解析】答案選C。由於是將“Love me, love my dog”與“Love me, love my book”進行比較,故用比較級。此題的巧妙之處在於句中沒有出現than,而是給出兩個待比較的proverb。

4. With April 18’s railway speedup, highway and air transport will have to compete with _________ service for passengers. (江蘇卷)

A. good B. better C. best D. the best

【解析】答案選B。句子大意為:由於鐵路提速了,所以公路和航空業要提高服務質量來競爭客源。因將“公路和航空”與“鐵路”比較,故用比較級。

三、考查“否定詞+a+比較級”結構

1. Your story is perfect. I’ve never heard _________ before. (全國卷III)

A. the better one B. the best one C. a better one D. a good one

【解析】答案選C。“否定詞(尤其是never)+a+比較級”的意思是“從來沒有……一個更……的”,這類結構通常可視為在其後省略了一個than…短語,做題時要注意根據具體的語境作出正確的理解,如:I have never read a better article. 我從未讀過(比這篇文章)更好的文章(=這是我所讀過的最好的文章)。I have never seen a worse film. 我從沒看過(比這部電影)更糟的電影(=這是我所看過的最糟的電影)。本題中的I’ve never heard a better one before的意思是“我從未聽到過(比你這個事故)更好聽的事故”。

2. —Did you enjoy yourself at the party?

—Yes. I’ve never been to _________ one before. (四川卷)

A. a more excited B. the most excited C. a more exciting D. the most exciting

【解析】答案選C。I’ve never been to a more exciting one before實為I’ve never been to a more exciting one before than this one. 其意為“我從未參加過比這個晚會更令人興奮的晚會”,即“這是我參加過最令人興奮的晚會”。又如:I’ve never had a worse morning than today. 我哪一天早上也不像今天早上這樣倒霉。若意思明確,有時可省略than結構:He is fine, never better. 他很好,比以往任何時候都好。

注意:有時根據不同語法結構的需要,也可能沒有不定冠詞。如:

No news could be moredelightfulto me. 這訊息最令我高興。

I have never drunk better beer. 我從來沒喝過這么好的啤酒。

四、考查比較等級的修飾語

After two years’ research, we now have a _________ better understanding of the disease. (全國卷II)

A. very B. far C. fairly D. quite

【解析】答案選B。這四個副詞中,通常只有far可用於修飾比較級。註:quite有時也可用於修飾比較級better,但它只用於表示“身體康復”,不用於其他意義。

五、考查相似比較級結構的區別

—Do you need any help, Lucy?

—Yes. The job is _________ I could do myself. (福建卷)

A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than

【解析】答案選B。比較:less than意為“少於”;more than意為“多於,超過”;no more than意為“只有,只是”;not more than意為“不多於,至多”。做好此題的關鍵是注意句中的Yes,由於答話者對問話者的“你需要幫助嗎?”作了肯定回答,說明答話者獨自完成工作有困難,故填more than。

六、考查近義比較的區別

This washing machine is environmentally friendly because it uses _________ water and electricity than _________ models. (北京卷)

A. less; older B. less; elder C. fewer; older D. fewer; elder

【解析】答案選A。less為little的比較級,主要用於修飾不可數名詞,fewer為few的比較,主要用於修飾可數名詞,據此可排除C和D,因為fewer不能用於修飾water;older與elder的區別之一是前者既可用於修飾人,也可用於修飾事物,而後者只用於修飾人,不用於修飾事物,故只能選A。

七、考查as…as結構的用法及修飾語的位置

1. It is reported that the United States uses _________ energy as the whole of Europe. (廣西卷)

A. astwiceB. twice much C. twice much as D. twice as much

【解析】答案選D。由energy後的as可知,此題是考查as…as…結構。根據英語語法習慣,修飾as…as…結構的副詞只能置於as…as…結構之前,不能置於其中。又如:She went out with a man twice as old as her. 她和一個年齡比她大一倍的男子來往。It cost three times as much as I had expected. 它花的錢比我預期的多兩倍。

2. He speaks English indeed, but of course not _________a native speaker. (上海卷)

A. as fluent as B. more fluent than C. so fluently as D. much fluently than

【解析】答案選C。因為修飾動詞speaks要用副詞,排除A和B;又因為than只能用於比較級後而不能位於原級後,排除D。句意是:他的英語講得的確不錯,不過,當然不如英語本族人講得流利。

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