形容詞從句

形容詞從句是在句中起形容詞作用的主謂結構,通常修飾它前面的名詞或代詞,即它的先行詞。形容詞從句也稱為定語從句(attributive clauses) 或關係從句(relative clauses)。

定義

先請看兩個句子:
--Is that the woman who wants to buy your car? (是那個女的要買你的車嗎?)
--I’ve just met Mrs. Smith-Perkins, who wants to buy your car.
(我剛才碰見史密斯-珀金斯夫人,她要買你的車。)
在第一句里,形容詞從句 who wants to buy your car指明了是哪個女人,對先行詞woman起限制作 用,這就是限制性形容詞從句。這樣的形容詞從句不能隨便省略,因為省略之後句意多半不完整。 比如說,如果有人問: “Is that thewoman?”聽者很可能會感到莫名其妙, 不知道指的是哪個女人。但 在第二句里,即使省略斜體部分,聽者也很可知道說的是哪一位史密斯-珀金斯夫人,也就是說形 容詞從句who wants to buy your car只是對先行詞作進一步說明作為補充而已,對先行詞不起限制 作用,這就是非限制性形容詞從句。

限制性和非限制性形容詞從句在意義上的不同

同一個先行詞選擇用限制性形容詞從句還是非限制性從句修飾,在意義上有時沒有什麼區別,有時卻會有很明顯的區別,例如:
--The travelers who knew about the floods took another road.
(知道漲大水的旅客走了另一條路。)指部分旅客,從句對旅客作了限制。
--The travelers, who knew about the floods, took another road.
(旅客都知道漲大水了,他們走了另一條路。)指全部旅客,從句對旅客只是作補充說明,沒有限制。

限制性和非限制性形容詞從句在形式上的不同

限制性和非限制性形容詞從句在形式上有非常明顯的區別:限制性形容詞從句一般不以任何方式與句子的其他部分隔開,講話的時候也沒有停頓,書寫時不用逗號。而非限制性形容詞從句則經常與句子的其他部分隔開,講話時有停頓(或是改變語調),書寫時也要用逗號。請再比較下面的句子:
--Where’s the money (that) I lent you? (限制性形容詞從句) (我借給你的錢到哪去了?)
--He lent me a thousand pounds, which was exactly the amount I needed to solve my problem. (非限制性形容詞從句) (他借給我一千英鎊,這筆錢正好可以解決我的問題。)如果非限制性從句位於主句之中,則把從句和主句用逗號分開,如:
--The treatment, which is being tried by researchers at four hospitals, has helped patients who have failed to respond to other remedies.

限制性和非限制性形容詞從句在文體上的區別

因為非限制性形容詞從句往往顯得冗長,正式, 所以常用在書面語中, 口語中很少用。

限制性和非限制性形容詞從句在語法上的區別

這兩類形容詞從句的區別已不僅僅是用不用逗號隔開的問題,兩者之間還有著重要的語法區別。
a. 兩種從句中關係代詞的用法不同
1)非限制性形容詞從句不能用that作關係代詞。詳見19.2.4 that, which的互換和不可互換。
2)非限制性從句用which作關係代詞時有時可以代替前面的整個句子,參見19.6。
3)非限制性形容詞從句中的關係代詞都不能省略,而在限制性從句中,關係代詞that, which,
whom有時可以省略。詳見19.3中that, which, whom的省略。
b. 由先行詞來決定形容詞從句的性質
1)一個先行詞(名詞)如果已由其他修飾語作了完整的表述,就不再用限制性形容詞從句修飾,
但可以用非限制性形容詞從句來做補充說明。例如我們不能說:
--*My house which I bought last year has got a lovely garden.
因為名詞house已經有了一個代詞修飾語my,它就不能再用一個限制性形容詞從句來修飾。這個句子應該改為
--My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden.
或者保留限制性形容詞從句但去掉代詞修飾語,即:
--The house which I bought last year has got a lovely garden.
2)某些先行詞只能跟限制性形容詞從句
非限制性從句的先行詞通常不能是代詞,而限制性的形容詞從句的先行詞可以是(或者含有)any, all, every, some, many, much, no(body), several, those等非特指的限定詞,甚至還可以是人稱代詞 he, she, we(這種用法僅限於正式英語和舊式英語中)。例如:
--In theory anyone who lives or works in the area may be at risk.
--All the students who had failed the test, wanted to try again.
--Every book that is written to deceive the reader should be banned.
--Someone who knows the area, but whose home is outside it, is more likely to be a successful representative.
--Much that has been said tonight will soon be forgotten.
--Nobody who/that watched the match will ever forget it.
--The journey was a disappointment to those who would have preferred to travel by road.
--He who helps the handicapped deserves our support.
… we who are supposed to be so good at talking and writing.
注意,代詞you, they, it一般都不能作先行詞。不能說*They who work hard deserve some reward. 而一般改為Those who work…
也不能說*It that stands over there is a church. 可以改為 What stands over there is a church. 偶
爾,you後接非限制性形容詞從句,如:
--You, to whom I owe all My Happiness, …
3) 某些先行詞只能跟非限制性形容詞從句
當先行詞是表示通常的“獨一無二”的含義時,一般只能用非限制性形容詞從句來修飾。例如:
--Dr Brown, who lives next door, comes from Australia.
而當專有名詞臨時呈現普通名詞的特點,不是獨一無二時,可接各類限制性修飾語。如:
--Do you mean the Memphis which used to be the capital of Egypt, or the Memphis in Tennessee?
c. 某些句型中只可能出現限制性形容詞從句
1)在強調句型:“it + be + 名詞/ 代詞 + that/ who從句” 中的從句只可能是限制性的形容詞從句。
--It was she who initiated divorce proceedings.
--It was Ann that I saw.
--It’s I who am responsible for the organization.
--It is they who are complaining.
2)在there be句型中出現的形容詞從句也只能是限制性的。注意該句型中的關係代詞常省略。如:
--There are three reasons why we should support this action.
--In fact there are some strategies which are much more reliable.
--Is there anything you want to tell me?
用此句型強調一個否定成分特別常見:
--There’s nothing (that/which) I can do about it.
--There was no way (in which) they could persuade her to try again.

形容詞從句中的關係詞

形容詞從句的關係詞同時兼有兩個功能,一是它們像其他副詞或代詞一樣,要在從句中作狀語或是作從句動詞的主語或賓語或其它成分,另外它們又像其他連線詞一樣,把主句和從句連線起來。
請看例句:
--What’s the name of the blonde girl who just came in?
句中who just came in是形容詞從句,who是關係代詞,它代替the blonde girl成為動詞came的主語,同時它又把主句和從句連線成一個句子。所以理解形容詞從句中的關係詞就是要明白:一它代替主句中的哪個部分,二它在從句中充當什麼成分。 這樣下面的錯誤就能避免了:
--*This is the house that my father lived for thirty years. 應該改為 This is the house where/ in
which my father lived for thirty years. 因為關係詞代替的是主句中的the house,但在從句中充當的是狀語,所以不能用that,改為where 或in which。
形容詞從句的關係詞一般分為這樣兩類:關係代詞和關係副詞。

關係代詞

包括代人的who, whom,whose, 代物的which以及既可以代人也可以代物的that
用法

a. 關係代詞在限制性形容詞從句中:
--I don’t like people who/that lose their tempers easily. (who/that代替主句中的people,在從句中作主語。)
--The airline has a booklet that/which tells you most of the important things about a trip to Europe. (that/which代替主句中的a booklet, 在從句中充當主語。)
--The girls whom/ that he employs are always complaining about their pay. (whom/that代替主句中的the girls,在從句中充當動詞employ的賓語。)
--The bed that/which I slept on has no mattress. (which 代替主句中的the bed, 在從句中作介詞on 的賓語。)
--Let ABC be a triangle whose sides are of unequal length. (whose代替主句中的 triangle,在從句中作定語修飾sides)
b. 關係代詞在非限制性形容詞從句中:
--This is Mr. Gallagher, who writes comic poetry. (注意此時的who不能用that來替代)
--The giant panda, which is to be found in the remote parts of China, lives exclusively on bamboo shoots.
--His house, for which he paid $10,000, is now worth $50,000.
--The small man in the raincoat, whom nobody recognized, turned out to be Olivia’s first husband. (注意whom不能省略, 也不能替換為that)
--Ann, whose children are at school all day, is trying to get a job.

關係副詞

包括代替時間的when,代替地點的where以及代替原因且先行詞為reason的why。也有的語法學家認為when, where, why這三個副詞不過是代替了指時間的in/on which, 指地點的in/at which,以及可以指示原因的for which。
--Dan’s fondest memory is of last year, when the club gave a tea party for the Queen Mother. (when代替主句中的last year,相當於 in which, 在從句中作時間狀語。)
--I know a wood where you can find wild strawberries. (where 代替主句中的a wood,相當於in which, 在從句中作地點狀語。)
--Is there any reason why you can not come? (why代替主句中的reason,相當於for which,在從句中作原因狀語。)
--In time we reached a stage where we had more black readers than white ones. (注意where 的先行詞除了地點名詞外,還可以是situation, stage 等詞)

關於that的特殊用法

a. that替代其他關係代詞
在限制性形容詞從句中that 是最活躍的一個關係代詞。它常常可以代替其他關係代詞(除了 whose),既可指人,也可指物;可以作主語,也可以作賓語。口語體中尤其明顯。
--He is the man who/that people like at first sight. (指人,作主語)
--The lawyer whom/who/that I consulted gave me some useful advice. (指人,作賓語)
--Could you iron the trousers which/that are Hanging Up behind the door? (指物,作主語)
--The school which/ that my children attend is within walking distance. (指物,作動詞賓語)
--The ladder which/ that I was standing on began to slip. (指物,作介詞賓語。注意只能說The ladder on which I was…

b. 從句連線詞只能選用that
先行詞前如果有限定詞all, any(thing), every(thing), (a) few, (a) little, no(thing), none, only, some (thing), very或含有序數詞或形容詞最高級等修飾時,其後的關係代詞通常要用that。如果這個關係代詞作動詞賓語時也可以省略。如:
--All that he has ever said confirms my suspicions of his motives. (= What he has ever said…)
--All the apples that fall are eaten by the pigs.
--Have you got anything that belongs to me? (= Have you got what belongs to me?)
--I advise you to accept any offer you receive.
--I hope that the little that I’ve been able to do has been of some use. (= I hope what I’ve…)
--The only thing that matters is to find our way home. (= What matters…)
--That’s the very film that I want to see.
--I’ll speak to her the first opportunity I have.
--The visiting room was the worst (that) I had seen.
--She must be one of the most remarkable women that ever lived.
c. 作主語補足語的連線詞that
限制性形容詞從句中,當先行詞是一個表示特徵的主語補足語時,該從句用that而不是who來引導。
此時的that也可以省略。
--She’s not the brilliant dancer (that) she used to be.
…the distinguished actress that she later became.
--That was the kind of person she was.
(在非限制從句中,則用which來引導, 如:They accused him of being a traitor, which he was. )

關於that 和which的互換和不可互換

如果先行詞是物,which和that在限制性形容詞從句中大都可以互換,但在非限制性形容詞從句中不能用that。例如我們可以說:
--The WHISKY that/ which he drank last night cost him eight pounds.
但是,在非限制性形容詞從句中,
--I passed him a large glass of whisky, which he drank immediately. 不能說成*…whisky, that he drank…
另外,which在非限制性形容詞從句中可以代替前面整個分句或句子(具體用法參見19.6), which也可以用在“介詞+which”結構(參見19.5.1)。這兩種情形下的which都不能用that替換。

who 和whom的區別

這兩個關係代詞的先行詞都是人,但它們的區別並不與人稱代詞主格和賓格的區別相對應。其實who, whom主要是文體上的區別:whom大致上限用於正式文體,在非正式文體中,人們有避免使
用whom的傾向,可以用who,that來代替whom,但這些關係代詞通常都被省略。
--People (that) I visit/ speak to… 就比People whom I visit/ speak to…更多見於口語中。
以下例句中,如果選用whom則表示文體較正式,如果選用who, that或是乾脆省略關係代詞,則文體屬於非正式。
--The lawyer (whom/ who/ that) I consulted gave me some useful advice.
--That’s the man who (m) I saw talking to your parents.
--I think you should stay faithful to the person (whom/who/that) you’re married to.
但是注意:在介詞後的只能是whom而不能是who,如不能說*This is the person to who you spoke. 而是This is the person to whom you spoke. (具體用法參見19.5中“介詞+ whom”)。

whose 的用法

whose與其它關係代詞一樣在從句中都能單獨充當一個句子成分,表示所屬關係,whose象his, her 或its這樣的形容詞性物主代詞一樣與名詞連用, whose充當該名詞的定語。在形容詞從句中(包括限制性與非限制性形容詞從句),“whose + 名詞”這一結構可以用作主語,動詞賓語或介詞賓語。另外請注意whose既可指人也可指物。例如:
--The film is about a spy whose wife betrays him.
--In Wasdale there is a mysterious dark lake, whose depth has never been measured.
--It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at the time.
--According to Cook , whose book is published on Thursday, most disasters are avoidable.
--This is Felicity, whose sister you met last week.
在先行詞是非人稱的情況下,有某種避免使用whose的趨勢。有時用of which代替whose指物,詞序一般是“名詞+of which”。
--He’s written a book whose name / the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (另參見19.5.2)
或者改用介詞詞組,如:
--The house whose roof was damaged has now been repaired. 改為The house with the damaged roof has now been repaired.

why

雖然說用why引導的形容詞從句可以用來修飾先行詞reason,可是the reason why在語義上顯得重複,人們普遍使用的是省略why或是換用名詞性從句。如:
--Is that the reason why they came? 通常說成:
--Is that the reason they came? 或Is that why they came?

關係代詞that 和which 的省略

在限制性形容詞從句中,關係代詞that, which作動詞賓語或介詞賓語時常常被省略,口語體中尤其如此。
--The ladder (that/ which) I was standing on began to slip.
--The car (that/which) I hired broke down after five kilometers.
--This is the room (that/which) Churchill was born.
限制性形容詞從句可以修飾一些感嘆性名詞短語(一般表示不贊同),此時的從句關係代詞通常也省略。如:
--The fuss they made!
--The things they get up to!
--The clothes she wears!
在表明方式、時間或地點的某些單詞後面,常用that代替in which, when或where。此時that也可以省略。
--I didn’t like the way (that) she spoke to me.
--The day (when/that ) she arrived at the congress was sunny.
--Things have changed a great deal since the last time you were here.
--Throughout the period I was in London, it rained heavily.
--The moment (when) you do something they disagree with they are at your throat…
--Do you know anywhere (that) I can get a drink?

形容詞從句的縮簡形式

形容詞從句通常可以有三種縮簡方式:動詞-ing形式 ,動詞-ed形式以及介詞短語。請注意,縮簡之後的短語或分句並不一定依然作定語修飾原來的先行詞,很多時候它們可以作狀語。還有,可以縮簡為短語的形容詞從句必須是:從句的關係代詞作從句的主語。
縮減為V-ing形式 / -ed形式
a. 形容詞從句在下列情況可縮簡為動詞-ing形式
1) 從句中的動詞是進行時態,例如:
--People who are/were waiting for the bus often shelter/sheltered in my doorway. 縮簡成
--People waiting for the bus…
--He gestured towards the three cards that were lying on the tables. 縮簡成:
--He gestured to the three cards lying on the tables.
--The bride, who was smiling happily, chatted to the guests. 縮簡成:
--The bride, smiling happily, chatted to the guests. (-ing短語作伴隨狀語)
--the scream of a man who is/ was dying in torment 縮簡成:
--the scream of a man dying in torment
-ing形式可以有被動態,表示被動進行,例如:
--Reports that are being written by my colleague will be discussed tomorrow. 縮簡成:
--Reports being written by my colleague …
2) 從句中的動詞表示一個習慣性或連續性的動作:
--Passengers who travel/ traveled in this bus buy/ bought their tickets in books. 縮簡成;
--Passengers travelling in this bus…
--A notice which warns/ warned people… 縮簡成:
--A notice warning people…
--Anyone who/that followed this advice could find himself in trouble. 縮簡成:
--Anyone following this advice could find himself in trouble.
3) 從句中的主要動詞表示一種願望,即句中動詞是wish, desire, want, hope等(但不是like),例如:
--people who wish / wished to go on the tour 縮簡成:
--people wishing to go on the tour
--fans who hope/ hoped for a glimpse of the star 縮簡成:
--fans hoping for a glimpse of the star
4) 從句中的動詞是某些靜態動詞
--a wicker shopping-basket that /which contains groceries 縮簡成:
--a wicker shopping-basket containing groceries
--It was a mixture that consists of oil and vinegar. 縮簡成:
--It was a mixture consisting of oil and vinegar.
--This is a liquid that resembles that of soapy water. 縮簡成:
--This is a liquid with a taste resembling that of soapy water.
5) 非限制性形容詞從句中如果是上述動詞之一或者是表示知道、考慮的任何動詞(例如know, think, believe, expect)
--John, who knew that his wife was expecting a baby, started to take a course on baby care.
縮簡成:
--John, knowing that his wife was expecting a baby, …
--Peter, who thought the journey would took two days, said… 縮簡成;
--Peter, thinking the journey would take two days, said…
--Tom, who expected to be paid the following week, offered… 縮簡成;
--Tom, expecting to be paid the following week, offered…
--Bill, who wanted to make an impression on Ann, took her to… 縮簡成:
--Bill, wanting to make an important impression on Ann, took her to…
6) 表示同位的形容詞從句
--She enjoys her job, which is teaching English. 縮簡成:
--She enjoys her job, teaching English.
--Julia, who was a nun, spent much of her life in prayer an meditation. 縮簡成:
--Julia, being a nun, …
--The baby would probably not live to grow up, who was a scrawny little thing, unlikely to survive the normal ailments of childhood. 縮簡成:
--…, being a scrawny little thing, …
b. 形容詞從句縮簡為動詞-ing形式後並不一定表示進行形容詞從句縮簡為動詞-ing形式並不總是表示進行.在許多情況下-ing形式只是表示主動。也就是說一個-ing短語可以代替多個動詞時態。如:
--The person writing reports is my colleague. = The person who will write/ will be writing/ writes/ is writing/ wrote/ was writing reports is my colleague.
即形容詞從句中處於不同時態的動詞詞組write reports都可以替換為同一個分詞短語writing reports。
c. 形容詞從句縮簡為動詞-ing形式後並不一定是定語動詞-ing短語替換了原來的形容詞從句後並不一定還作定語,它們也可以作狀語。如:
--The apple tree, which was Swaying gently in the breeze, was a reminder of old times. 縮簡成:
--The apple tree, swaying gently in the breeze, … (作狀語,補充說明the apple tree)
--The crowd, who were laughing and shrieking, rushed under the nearest trees. 縮簡成:
--Laughing and shrieking, the crowd rushed under the nearest trees. (作狀語,表示伴隨)
d. 替換限制性形容詞從句的-ing短語通常不能用完成體,如:
--The man who has won the race is my brother. 不能替換為
--*The man having won the race is my brother.
e. 形容詞從句縮簡為一個帶邏輯主語的-ing短語
有時,形容詞從句可以替換為一個帶邏輯主語的-ing短語,例如:
--He began hitting them with his stick, whose reply had not come as quickly as he wanted 縮簡成:
--…, their reply not having come as quickly as he wanted..
--Bats are surprisingly long-lived creatures, some of which have a life-expectancy of around twenty years. 縮簡成:
--…, some having a life-expectancy of around twenty years.
f. 形容詞從句縮簡為否定的-ing短語
否定形式的-ing短語也可以代替形容詞從句,例如:
--He, who did not wish to boast, paused. 縮簡成:
--He paused, not wishing to boast.
--He, who had not seen her for fifteen years or so, failed to recognize her at first. 縮簡成:
--He failed to recognize her at first, not having seen her for fifteen years or so.
g. 形容詞從句中的主動詞是被動態,即先行詞是該動詞表示的動作的結果或承受者,則可以用-ed短語替代形容詞從句。-ed短語直接置於名詞(先行詞)之後。
--a girl who is/ was called Patricia 縮簡成:a girl called Patricia
--those who are/have been/ were/ had been assembled 縮簡成:those assembled
--two of the problems that have been mentioned above 縮簡成;two of the problems mentioned above
--The substance, which was discovered almost by accident, has revolutionized medicine. 縮簡成:
--…, discovered almost by accident, …
--The novels of Mary Webb, which were praised by Stanley Baldwin and were so popular in the 30s, and so popular in the 30s, were great favorites of mine. 縮簡成:
--…, praised by Stanley Baldwin…
--She who was surprised at my reaction tried to console me. 縮簡成:
--Surprised at my reaction, she tried to console me.
h. 一個–ed短語可以替代多種動詞時態
例如;
--the car (being) repaired by that mechanic 可以對應這樣一些時態:
--the car that will be repaired/ is (being) repaired/ was (being) repaired by that mechanic…
i. 與-ing短語一樣,-ed短語替換限制性形容詞從句通常不能用完成體。例如:
--The food which has been eaten was meant for tomorrow. 不能換成:
--The food having been eaten was meant for tomorrow.

介詞短語 (prepositional phrases)

英語中的介詞套用本來就相當靈活,用介詞短語作後置修飾語被認為是最常見的。那么用介詞短語替代那些作後置定語的形容詞從句也就非常普遍了。
a. for短語替代why引導的形容詞從句 。例如:
--She asked the reason why there was a delay. 縮簡成:
--She asked the reason for the delay.
b. with/ without短語替代形容詞從句
這是套用範圍最廣的一個替代結構。
with短語可表示某人或某物所具有的特徵、特點或擁有的事物。without是with的反義詞。
--a man who has a red nose 縮簡成: a man with a red nose
--a man who carries/ carried/ was carrying the gun 縮簡成: the man with the gun
--women who have no children 縮簡成:women without children
--the house which has no porch 縮簡成:the house without a porch
還可用來表示某物表面具有或內部包含的事物。
--a round box in which there are some buttons 縮簡成: a round box with some buttons in it
--fragments of wrapping paper to which there are still bits of sticky pate adhering 縮簡成:
fragments of wrapping paper with bits of sticky pate still adhering to them
--The old man, whose tears were running down his face, stood up. 縮簡成:
--The old man stood up with tears running down his face.
--It was a hot, calm day, when every object at the sea’s surface was visible for miles. 縮簡成:
--It was a hot, calm day, with every object at the sea’s surface visible for miles.
c. in短語替代形容詞從句描寫穿戴
例如:
--a grey-haired man who is/was wearing a raincoat 縮簡成:a grey-haired man in a raincoat
--little groups of people who are/ were in black 縮簡成: little groups of people in black
--the man who is/ was wearing dark glasses 縮簡成:the man in the dark glasses
d. of短語替代形容詞從句可以表示某人或某物具有特定的品質
例如:
--a woman who has/ had much energy and great ambition 縮簡成:a woman of energy and ambition of用於數詞前,表示人的年齡大小等。例如:
--a woman who is/ was twenty-two (years old) 縮簡成:a woman of twenty-two
e. 原形容詞從句中的介詞詞組替代原從句
形容詞從句中本來就有介詞詞組,並且有時這些介詞詞組本身就能表達出從句中用“動詞+介詞”詞組表達的比較確定的含義,這樣就可以省略動詞而只用介詞詞組。例如最常見的是表示方位、時間的介詞詞組:
--the car that stood outside the station 縮簡成:the car outside the station
--She reached into the room that/ which was behind her. 縮簡成:
She reached into the room behind her.
--My brother, who has lived in America for over 30 years, can still speak Italian. 縮簡成:
After 30 years in America, my brother can still speak Italian.
其他有明確含義的介詞詞組:
--the bond that is between mother and child 縮簡成:the bond between mother and child
--the man who is/ was in charge 縮簡成:the man in charge
--a film that is about four men on holiday 縮簡成:a film about four men on holiday
f. 帶邏輯主語的介詞詞組替代形容詞從句
有時,可以用一個帶邏輯主語的介詞詞組替代原來的形容詞從句,例如:
--He was waiting, drumming with his fingers, whose eyes were on his napkin. 縮簡成:
…, his eyes on his napkin.
介詞+ which/whom/whose結構
形容詞從句中的介詞可以放在從句中或放在關係代詞前,如:
--The old house (which) I was telling you about is empty.
--The old house about which I was telling you is empty.
介詞放在關係代詞前就出現了“介詞+which/ whom/ whose”結構。此結構一般只用於正式文體。而在英語口語體中,通常將介詞放在從句中並省去關係代詞。試比較:
--The people (who/whom/that) he worked with thought he was a bit strange. (口語體)
--The people with whom he worked regarded him as eccentric. (正式文體)
再看幾個例句:
--The man from whom I bought it told me to oil it.
--Atlas (in Greek mythology) was a kneeling man on whose shoulders the world rested.
--Her brother snatched the letter away, at which she was furious.
--Michel Croz, with whose help Whymper climbed the Matterhorn, was one of the first of the professional guides.
--Universal Agroplastics, of which Max Harrison was until recently the chairman, has made loss of three million pounds this year.
(環球農用塑膠製品公司今年虧損達三百萬英鎊,直到前不久麥克斯哈里森還是它的董事長。)
另外英語中我們常常見到“介詞+ which/ whom/ whose”結構的一個引伸結構“介詞+ which +名詞”。 該結構引出非限制性形容詞從句,對主句作進一步說明。該結構中的名詞常為time、point等表時間
的名詞,或case、fact、 event、situation等名詞。例如:
--We arrived at noon, by which time the demonstration was over.
--I was told my work was unsatisfactory, at which point I submitted my resignation.
--He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him.
--They were under water for several hours, from which experience they emerged unharmed.
--The last speaker assured the audience that the party would win the election, on which optimistic note the meeting ended.
“名詞/代詞+介詞+which”結構
a. 在非限制性形容詞從句中,某些名詞或代詞可以與of whom和of which連用。除一般名詞外,可以用於這個結構的名詞或代詞包括限定詞(如some, any, none, all, both, several, enough, many, most及few)以及其他表示數量的詞和形容詞最高級, 如a number (of whom), three (of which), half (of which), the majority (of whom), the youngest (of whom) 例如:
--We study in a big room, the windows of which open to the park.
--It is a language shared by several quite diverse cultures, each of which uses it differently.
--He introduced me to his boys, one of whom offered to go with me.
--The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.
--We’ve tested three hundred types of boot, none of which is completely waterproof.
--Her sons, both of whom work abroad, ring her up every week.
--I met the fruit-pickers, several of whom were university students.
b. 限制性形容詞從句中的“名詞/代詞+介詞+ which”結構
在限制性形容詞從句中,由於of which可以代替whose用來指物,也就出現了“名詞+of which” 的結構。例如:
--We had a meeting the purpose of which was completely unclear. (= … a meeting whose purpose was …)
--a town the inhabitants of which speak French (= a town whose inhabitants speak French)
--I traveled in a lorry the back of which the owner had loaded with yams. (=… a lorry whose back…)
短語或整個句子作先行詞
有時形容詞從句修飾的不是它前面的一個名詞,而是前面的整個分句或句子,這樣,整個分句或整句子就成為形容詞從句的先行詞。這樣的形容詞從句通常都是非限制性形容詞從句。例如:
--He tore up my photo, which upset me. 他把我的照片撕了,這使我很不高興。
在這個句子裡,不是照片令人不高興,而是他把照片撕了這件事令人不高興。整個句子He tore up my photo都是形容詞從句的先行詞。在這種情況下,從句的連線詞總是用which,不能用that 或 what。有時從句的先行詞是前面的短語,如:
--He walks for an hour each morning, which would bore me. (which 指的是walk for an hour each morning 這件事)
更多見的是前面整個句子作從句先行詞:
--She cycled from London to Glasgow, which is pretty good for a woman of 75.
--The clock struck thirteen, which made everyone laugh.
--They are fond of snakes and lizards, which surprises me.
--She was much kinder to her youngest child than she was to the others, which made the others jealous.
--Minute computers need only minute amounts of power, which means that they will run on small batteries.
--Colin married my sister and I married his bother, which makes Colin and me double in-laws.

容易犯錯的形容詞從句

在三種英語從句 中,名詞從句與副詞從句用得較多,錯誤也較少。形容詞從句用得較少,但卻最易犯錯,尤其是下列四種錯法:
㈠重複形容詞中的賓語。例如:
*①TheessaywhichJohnwroteityesterdaygotagoodgrade.
*②Doyouknowthenameofthemanwhomthepolicearelookingforhim?
在①里的形容詞從句中的“it”和②里的“him”都是重複的賓語,因為這兩個賓語已經由關係代詞“which”和“whom”接管了。因此,“it”和“him”是多餘的,必須去掉。
㈡關係代詞或關係副詞不對。例如:
*③Thisisthedogwhoateupthefood.
*④Doyouknowthetimewhichwemustresumework?
③里的關係代詞“who”和④里的“which”都錯。③里的先行詞是一種動物,關係代詞里“which”或“that”才對。④里的先行詞是“時間”,應該用關係副詞“when”才可。
㈢形容詞從句修飾的對象不符。例如:
*⑤Malcolmfinishedtheworkandthenlefttheofficewhichwaswell-planned.
這裡的形容詞從句“whichwaswell-planned”,應該修飾名詞“thework”,不是“theoffice”,因此犯了修飾的對象不符之錯。最容易的改正方法,是使這個從句緊扣在先行詞“thework”後面,即:
⑥Malcolmfinishedtheworkwhichwaswell-plannedandthenlefttheoffice.
這樣的改正雖然符合語法,但句子顯得頭重腳輕,失去平衡;對是對,但是不好。我建議重整從句,以臻“既對且好”之境。試比較7(a),(b)和(c):
⑦a.Malcolmlefttheofficeafterhehadfinishedtheworkwhichwaswell-planned.
b.Malcolmlefttheofficeafterhavingfinishedtheworkwhichwaswell-planned.
c.Malcolmfinishedthewell-plannedworkandthenlefttheoffice.
三句中,⑦(c)一氣呵成,短小精悍,是上選。此外,⑦(c)把形容詞從句節縮為合成形容詞(compoundadjective),使句子簡練有力。這點足以證明節縮句的好處。關於節縮方法,以後再談。在了解節縮法之前,千萬不要隨便嘗試,以免犯錯。例如:*⑧Asentenceismadeupofasubjectandapredicateiscalledasimplesentence.
⑧里的“ismadeupofasubjectandapredicate”是形容詞從句“whichismadeupofasubjectandapredicate”的節縮體,但是錯了。
根據形容詞從句的縮略規則,如果形容詞從句是被動式的話,就要把關係代詞和助動詞“be”一齊去掉:
⑨Doyoulikethemanwhowasintroducedtoyouyesterday?→Doyoulikethemanintroducedtoyouyesterday?
⑩Pleasefillineachoftheblankswhichareprovidedbelow.→Pleasefillineachoftheblanksprovidedbelow.
⑧里的關係代詞不見了,但是助動詞“is”還在,莫怪整句讀起來,有點不順口;因此要改一改;
╆Asentencemadeupofasubjectandapredicateiscalledasimplesentence.

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