定語從句

定語從句

定語從句,一個句子跟在一名詞或代詞(先行詞)後進行修飾限定,就叫做定語從句。通俗來講,從句在整個句子中做定語,這個從句就叫做定語從句。從句在主句中充當定語成分。 被修飾的詞叫先行詞。定語從句不同於單詞作定語的情況,它通常只能放在被修飾的詞(即先行詞)之後。 定語 從句由關係詞(關係代詞、關係副詞)引導,關係代詞、關係副詞位於定語從句句首。

基本信息

定義

關係代詞引導的定語從句
關係代詞所代替的先行詞是人或物的名詞或代詞,並在句中充當主語、賓語、定語等成分。關係代詞在定語 從句中作主語時,從句謂語動詞的人稱和數要和先行詞保持一致。

1)who, whom, that
這些詞代替的先行詞是人的名詞或代詞,在從句中所起作用如下:
Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
他就是想見你的人嗎?(who/that在從句中作主語)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.
他就是我昨天見的那個人。(whom/that在從句中作賓語)

2) Whose 用來指人或物,(只用作定語, 若指物,它還可以同of which互換), 例如:
They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.

那人車壞了,大家都跑過去幫忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green.

請遞給我那本綠皮的書。

3)which, that
它們所代替的先行詞是事物的名詞或代詞,在從句中可作主語、賓語等,例如:
A prosperitywhich / thathad never been seen before appears in the countryside.

農村出現了前所未 有的繁榮。(which / that在從句中作主語)
The packagewhich / thatyou are carrying is about to come unwrapped.

你拿的包快散了。(which / that 在從句中作賓語)
關係副詞引導的定語從句
關係副詞可代替的先行詞是時間、地點或理由的名詞,在從句中作狀語。

1)when, where,why
關係副詞when, where, why的含義相當於"介詞+ which"結構,因此常常和"介詞+ which"結構交替使用.
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield.

任何人都有不得不屈服的時候。
Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born.

北京是我的出生地。
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

這就是他拒絕我們幫助他的理由嗎?

2)that代替關係副詞
that可以用於表示時間、地點、方式、理由的名詞後取代when, where, why和"介詞+ which"引導的定語從 句,在非正式文體中that常被省略(正式文體中不可省略),例如:
His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born.

他父親在他出生那年逝世了。
He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.

他不大可能找到他四十 年前居住過的地方。

判斷關係代詞與關係副詞
方法一: 用關係代詞,還是關係副詞完全取決於從句中的謂語動詞。及物動詞後面無賓語,就必須要 求用關係代詞。

例如:
(錯) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
(錯) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
(對) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
(對) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.
習慣上總把表地點或時間的名詞與關係副詞 where, when聯繫在一起。此兩題錯在關係詞的誤用上。
方法二: 準確判斷先行詞在定語從句中的成分(主、謂、賓、定、狀),也能正確選擇出關係代詞/關係副詞.先行詞在從句中作主、定、賓語時,應選擇關係代詞;先行詞在從句中作狀語時,應選 擇關係副詞。

例如:

(對)Is this the museum which you visited a few days ago?

(對)Is this the museum where the exhibition was held?

從句結構

定語從句公式

定語從句=先行詞+關係詞+從句

先行詞

指被定語從句修飾的名詞、代詞或句子。

一般先行詞出現在定語從句的前面。

關係詞

關係詞常有3個作用:

①連線作用,連線主句和定語從句。

②指代先行詞。

③在定語從句中擔當成分。

註:關係代詞有主語、賓語、定語之分。一般who做主語或其賓格形式的whom做賓語(whom作賓語時可省略),whose作為定語(whose不可省略)。關係代詞在從句中作主語,賓語,定語等,關係副詞在從句中作地點狀語(where),時間狀語(when),原因狀語(why)。

定語

定語用來 限定、修飾名詞或代詞,是對名詞或代詞起修飾、限定作用的詞、短語(動詞不定式短語、分詞短語)漢語中常用“…… 的”表示。主要由形容詞擔任,此外,名詞、代詞、數詞、分詞、副詞、不定式以及介詞短語也可以來擔任,也可以由一個句子來擔任。單詞作定語時通常放在它所修飾的詞之前,作前置定語。短語、從句作定語時則放在所修飾的詞之後,作後置定語。

被定語從句修飾的名詞、代詞稱為先行詞。如“the girl”,“the book”

如:She is the girl who likes singing. 她就是那個喜歡唱歌的女孩。

這就是一個定語從句。

關係代詞

關係代詞所代替的先行詞是人或物的名詞或代詞,並在從句中充當主語、賓語、定語等成分。關係代詞在定語從句中作主語時,從句謂語動詞的人稱和數要和先行詞保持一致。

1、who, which, that

限定性定語從句中的關係代詞

作主語 作賓語 作定語
指人 who/that whom/that(可省略) whose
指物 which/that which/that(可省略) whose
指人和物thatthatwhose

非限定性定語從句中的關係代詞

作主語 作賓語 作定語
指人 who whom whose/of whom
指物 which which whose/of which

特殊情況:有六種情況只可用that:

(1)不定代詞 anything, nothing, everything,all,much,few,any,little為先行詞時;

Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 最終,小偷偷的所有東西全部交給了警察。

(2)先行詞為 the only, the very, the just時;

He is the very man that helped the girl out of the water. 他從水中救起了那個女孩。

(3)先行詞為序數詞、數詞、形容詞或最高級時;

The first English book that I read was "The Prince and the Pauper" by Mark Twain. 我讀的第一本書是馬克·吐溫寫的《王子與貧兒》。

(4)先行詞既有人又有物時;

He talked about the teachers and school that he visited. 他在講他以前訪問過的學校和老師。

(5)當主句是以who或which開始的特殊疑問句時,為避免重複用that;

Who is the person that is standing at the gate? 那個站在門口的人是誰?

(6)關係代詞作表語時;

He is not the man that he used to be. 他以前不是這樣的人。

註:which在定語從句中指物,可作主語或及物動詞或介詞的賓語,作賓語時可省略;that在定語從句中既可指人又可指物,在定語從句中作主語、賓語和表語,作賓語時可省略,指人時,相當於who或whom,指物時,相當於which,作介詞賓語時,介詞不可提到that前,當介詞提前時,需要用which或whom來代替。

不能用that的情況

1.

介詞

2.

非限定性定語從句

3.

先行詞本身是

多用who,不用that的情況

1.

先行詞為anyone,one,ones時;

2.

先行詞為those,he和people時;

這些詞代替指人,whom在定語從句中指人,"who"和“that”既可作主語又可作賓語(作賓語可以省略,who作賓語變為whom),that可以指人也可以指物, who不可指物 。在從句中所起作用如下:

(1)Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他是那個想見你的男人嗎?(who/that在從句中作主語)

(2)He is the man (whom/that) I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天見到的那個人。(whom/that在從句中作賓語)

(3)The man whom you spoke to just now is our English teacher. 剛剛和你說話的那個男人是我們的英語老師。(whom在從句中作賓語)

註:who在定語從句中指人,作主語和賓語, 作賓語時可省略;做及物動詞或介詞的賓語,可省略。


whose(只用作定語)

“whose”表示誰(可以為人也可以為物)的(東西)

例:A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.雙親都死了的孩子叫做孤兒。(“whose parents”表示那個孩子的雙親)

He lives in a room whose window faces south.他住的那個房子的窗戶是朝南的。(“whose”表示那個房子的窗戶)

•關係代詞:在句中作主語、賓語或定語。

1. that既可代表事物也可代表人,“which”代表事物;它們在從句中作主語或賓語,作賓語可省略“that”在從句中作賓語時常可省略關係詞,“which”在從句省略。[eg:This is the book (which)you want.]

2.如果which在從句中作“不及物動詞+介詞”的介詞的賓語,注意介詞不要丟掉,而且介詞總是放在關係代詞which的前面,但有的則放在它前面的位置。

3. 代表物時的that常被省略;

4. 被形容詞最高級修飾時;既有人又有物時;

5. 整個句中前面已有“which”,“why”時

關係副詞

關係副詞在句中作狀語

關係副詞=介詞+關係代詞

why=for which

where=in/ at/ on/to which(介詞同先行詞搭配)

when=during/ on/ in/at which

1. “where”是關係副詞,當然也不用“that”引導。

By the time when you arrived in London, we had stayed there for two weeks. 當你到達倫敦的時候,我們在那裡已經待了兩個星期。

I still remember the place where I met her for the first time. 我仍然記得我第一次見到她的地方。

Each time when he goes to business trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towels, soap, toothbrush etc. 他每次出差都帶著生活必需品,如毛巾,肥皂,牙刷等其他東西。

2. 當從句的邏輯主語是some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everything或nothing時,常用“there is”開頭。

There is somebody here who wants to talk to you. 這裡有人要和你說話。

分作進一步說明,通常是引導詞和先行詞之間用 逗號隔開,將從句拿掉後其他部分仍可成立。

1、why

關係副詞why主要用於修飾表原因的名詞(主要是the reason),同時它在定語從句中用作原因狀語。如:

We don’t know the reason why he didn’t show up. 我們不知道他為什麼沒有來。

She didn’t tell me the reason why she refused the offer. 她沒跟我講她拒絕這項工作的原因。

與關係副詞when和where不同, why可以換成that或省略。如:

That’s one of the reasons (why, that) I asked you to come. 這就是我請你來的原因之一。

另外,與關係副詞when和where可以引導非限制性定語從句不一樣, why只能引導限制性定語從句,不能引導非限制性定語從句。如:

他失去工作的主要原因是他喝酒。

誤:The main reason, why he lost his job, was that he drank.

正:The main reason why he lost his job was that he drank.(定語從句)

2、when

關係副詞when主要用於修飾表時間的名詞,同時它在定語從句中用作時間狀語。如:

There comes a time when you have to make a choice. 你必須作出抉擇的時候到了。

Gone are the days when they could do what they liked. 他們為所欲為的日子一去不復返了。

We’ll put off the picnic until next week, when the weather may be better. 我們將把野餐推遲到下星期,那時天氣可能會好一點。

注意不要一見到先行詞為時間名詞,就以為一定要用關係副詞when來引導定語從句,同時還要看它在定語從句中充當什麼成分—— 如果在定語從句中用作時間狀語,就用when;如果在定語從句中不是用作時間狀語,而是用作主語或賓語,那就不能用when,而要用that, which等。如:

Don’t forget the time (that, which) I’ve told you. 不要忘記我告訴你的時間。

關係代詞that / which在定語從句中用作動詞told的賓語,正因為是用作賓語,所以也可以省略。

3、where

關係副詞where主要用於修飾表地點的名詞,同時它在定語從句中用作地點狀語。如:

This is the village where he was born. 這就是他出生的村子。

That’s the hotel where we were staying last summer. 這就是我們去年夏天住的旅館。

Barbary was working in Aubury, where she went daily in a bus.巴巴拉在奧伯里工作,每天得坐公共汽車去上班。

與前面when的情況一樣,注意不要一見到先行詞為地點名詞,就以為一定要用關係副詞where來引導定語從句,同時還要看它在定語從句中充當什麼成分—— 如果在定語從句中用作地點狀語,就用where;如果在定語從句中不是用作地點狀語,而是用作主語或賓語,那就不能用where,而要用that, which等。如:

He works in a factory that [which] makes TV sets. 他在一家電視機廠工作。

限定性

限定性定語從句

意義:

限定性定語從句對被修飾的先行詞有限定製約作用,使該詞的含義更具體,更明確。限制性定語從句不能被省略,否則句意就不完整,例如I met some one who said he knows you.

1.

在引導限定性定語從句時,that有時相當於in which,at which,for which或on which

(1)Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that(in which) attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. 人們對白日做夢的態度正在改變,這與人們對夜間做夢的看法的變化有非常相似之處。

(2)I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislike it. 我出於某種原因喜歡這種音樂,而他恰恰與我相反。

(3)We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 剛好我們到的那天他們走了。

2.

在限定性定語從句中,當關係代詞在從句中擔任動詞賓語時,關係代詞可省略。

(1)The book (that/ which) I am reading is very interesting. 我在讀的書很有趣。

(2)Is there anything (that) you wanted? 想要什麼東西嗎?

非限定性

非限定性定語從句

意義:

非限定性定語從句起補充說明作用,缺少也不會影響全句的理解。在非限制性定語從句的前面往往有逗號隔開,如

(1)The house,which I bought has a lovely garden. 我買的房子帶著個漂亮的花園。

(2)This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 這本我已經讀過三遍的小說很感人。

1.非限定性定語從句可將整個主句作為先行詞, 對其進行修飾, 這時從句謂語動詞要用第三人稱單數,例如:

(1)He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.他似乎沒理解我的意思,這使我心煩。

(2)Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液態水變為蒸汽,這就叫做蒸發。

2. 在非限定定語從句中,有時as也可用作關係代詞,若as在從句中作主語,其引導的句子可以放在句首,也可以放在句中。例如:

(1)The boy has as much progress as we had expected. 正像我們所預料的那樣,這個男孩取得了大的進步。

(2) As everyone knows ,China is a beautiful country with a long history . 每個人都知道,中國是一個有著悠久歷史的美麗國家。

3. 在非限定性定語從句中,不能用從句做主語

(1)[錯]The boys ,who are playing football ,are from Class One. 在踢足球的男孩們是一班的。

(2)[錯]I helped an old man ,who lost his way ,yesterday . 昨天,我幫助了一個迷路的老人。

關係

一、先行詞和關係詞

1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.(“Whoever”可以用“anyone who”代替)

2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school. (“what”可以用“all that”代替)

但這兩句句子已經不是定語從句了,是 名詞性從句 。因為定語從句一定要有先行詞,而名詞性從句沒有。將“Whoever”、“what”分別用“Anyone who”、“all that”代替後,才是定語從句,先行詞分別是“Anyone”、“all”。

Alice received an invitation from her boss,______ came as a surprise.

A. it B. that C. which D. he

答案C。

a選項it,使前後成為兩個句子,中間無連詞連線,語法錯誤;b項that,此為非限定性從句,不能用“that”修飾;c選項which,which在從句中做主語,用來代指前面的這件事;d選項he;前半句中是her boss,所以不正確。

2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.

A. what B. which C. that D. it

答案B

A選項不能用來引導定語從句,C選項只能引導限定性定語從句,而D選項習慣上並不適用。

3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.

A. that B. which C. as D. it

答案B

“as”和“which”在引導非限賓語。但不同之處主要有兩點:

(1)importance to me, as my own is.

在一定的語言環境裡,有些名詞可以具有形容詞的性質。這些名詞主要是那些表示人的身份、職業、狀態的名詞。值得一提的是,在這些具有形容詞性質的名詞之後,引導定語從句的關係代詞不能用“who / whom”。

(2)動詞短語先行成分。

這種動詞短語既可是限定形式也可是非限定形式。如果是動態動詞短語,它們在從句中就一般有限定或非限定形式的替代動詞“do”和“as / which”一起代替。“do”可以出現,也可以不出現,但不能用其它動詞代替。

(3)句子作先行成分。

這句子可以是整個主句也可以只是主句中的一個從句。有時是連續幾個句子,有時甚至可以是一個完整的故事。

二、“as/which”特殊定語從句在句中的位置。

由於先行成分的構成成分”特殊定語從句在句中的位置有以下幾種情況:

1. 形容詞作先行成分時:形容詞的“which”特殊定語從句置於先行成分之後。

2. 動詞短語作先行成分時,“as / which”特殊定語從句置於先行成分之後。但是,當從句中含有表示主觀意志的插入成分時,“as”特殊。

3. 句子作先行成分時:“as”特殊定語從句的位置較靈活,可以置於先行成分之前、之中或之後。但如果先行成分是直接引語,“as”特殊定語從句與否定詞的相對中則常用一些表示“合乎自然規律”、“眾所周知”或“經常發生”等意義的詞語,如natural, known to all, usual等。

4. 有無狀語意要是方式狀語意義,而“which”特殊定語從句則無狀語意義。“as”特殊定四、關係代詞“as”與“which”一詞。如:

Freddie, as might be expected, was attending the conference.

1). “Which”作主語時,謂語動詞不限,主動被動皆可,只是謂語動詞為被動語態時助動詞“be”省略。

2). “as”和“which”都可以在特殊定語從句中賓語。

3). “as”和“which”在特殊從句中作補語。如:

We thought him a gentleman, as/which he could never be.

“as”特殊定語從句中可以主謂倒裝,“which”從句中則不能主謂倒裝。

如果先行成分不是主語補語或賓語補語,關係代詞用“which”而不用“as”。如:

He talked like a native, which/as he hardly was.

5."as"用法:

1)."as"引導限制性定語從句

a."such....as"

He is not such a fool as he looks.

I have never heard such a story as he tells.

b."the same ....as"

This is the same book as I lost last week.

(區分"the same...as"與"the same....that":兩者都引導定語從句。that從句中說明的名詞與the same修飾的名詞是同一個。as從句中說明的名詞與the same修飾的名詞是同一類,而非同一個。舉例:①This is the same pen that I lost. 這支鋼筆就是我丟的那一支。②This is the same pen as I lost. 這支鋼筆跟我丟的那支筆一模一樣。)

c."as...as"

As many children as came were given some cakes.

2)."as"引導非限制性定語從句

常用句式:as is said above 綜上所述

as is known to all 眾所周知

as is often the case 通常如此

as is reported in the newspaper 如報紙所報導的

6. “which”在特殊從定法

(1)不用that的情況

(a)在引導非限定性定語從句時。

(c)The tree, which is four hundred years old, is very famous here.

(b)介詞後能用。

We depend on the land from which we get our food.

We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

(2)只能用“that”引導:如先行詞被“last,just”修飾時,只用“that”。

(d)先行詞為序數詞、數容詞,又有人和物時。

(f)先行詞指物,在主句中作是“the way”或“the reason”時,“that”可作關係副詞,也可省略。

(h)主句的主語是疑問詞“who /which”時,避免重複要用“that”.

舉例:

Is this the book that you borrowed in the library?

這是你在圖書館借的書嗎?

Who that break the window should be punished.

誰打碎了窗戶誰該受罰。

All that needed is a supply of oil.

所需的是石油供應。

The thief gave out everything that he had stolen to the police.

那賊最終把偷的全部東西交給了警察。

定語從句只能“that”引導的情況:

1、先行詞是最高級或被最高級修飾。

This is the most interesting book that l have ever read.

2、先行詞是序數詞或被序數詞修飾。

The second foreign country that l expect to visit is Greek.

3、先行詞是不定代詞時,如"all、few、little、much、anything、nothing、something"

This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy.

4.、先行詞既有人又有物時

Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?

5、先行詞被“only”、“the every”、“no”、“one of”、“the right"、“the same"等修飾

He is the only person that l want to talk to.

6、在以“which”、“who”、“whom” 引起的問句中,為避免重複,常用"that"

Who is the man that is standing there? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

7、“there be”句型中

8、先行詞在主句中作表語,或者關係代詞本身作從句的表語時宜用“that”

“that”在作賓語時可省略。

(五)區分定語從句和 同位語從句

1、定語從句修飾先行詞,它和先行詞是修飾關係;

同位語從句說明先行詞的具體內容,是補充說明的關係。

(1)The boy who is playing football is my classmate.(定語從句)

2、定語從句由關係代for advice.

(3)The fact that the moon moves around the earth is known to all.

(4)The fact is that the moon moves around the earth .(這是一個表語從句 !)

(六)特殊的定語從句

1)but也可用作關係代詞來引導定語從句,意思接近於that(who).....not(這種用法已經有些陳舊)

There is no tree but bears some fruit.沒有不結果實的樹。

There are very few but admire his talents.很少有人不佩服他的才華。

Surely there isn't a mother but faces this problem.可以肯定,凡是母親都面臨著這個問題。

2)whereby,wherein,whereupon也可以引導定語從句,相當於by which,in which,upon/on which.這種用法已經有些陳舊,且僅用於書面語。

[定語從句]介詞+關係詞

1)介詞後面的關係副詞不能省略。

2)“that”前不能有介詞。

3)某些在從句中充當時間,地點或原因狀語的"介詞+關係詞"結構可以同關係副詞“when”和“where”互換。例如:

This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 這是我兩年前住過的房子。

This is the house where I lived two years ago.

Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 還記得你加入我們俱樂部的那一天嗎?

Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

二、介詞與關係代詞

“介詞+關係代詞”的結構

1. “介詞+ which”在關係分句中分別可作時間、地點和原因狀語,代替相應的關係副詞when, where和why。如:
①I still remember the day on which (= when) I first came to school. 我仍然記得初來學校的那一天。
②The factory in which (= where) I work is a large one. 我工作的工廠是一個大廠子。
2. “介詞+ which(指物)/whom(指人)”在關係分句中作地點狀語,表示存在關係,關係分句主謂常須倒裝。如
①They arrived at a farm house, in front of which sat a small boy. 他們來到一處農舍,前邊坐著一個小男孩。
②I saw a man, on the head of whom stood a bird. 我看見一個人,他的頭上有一隻鳥。
3. “不定代詞或數詞+ of + which(指物)/whom(指人)”在關係分句中作主語,說明整體中的一部分。如:

①China has a lot of islands, one of which is Diaoyu. 中國有許多島嶼,其中之一是釣魚島。
②There are a lot of students here, none of whom like the film. 這裡有許多學生,他們之中無人喜歡這部電影。
4. “介詞+ which(指物)/whom(指人)”在關係分句中作目的、方式或地點狀語。如:

①Could you tell me for whom you’ve bought this coat? 你能告訴我這件衣服是給誰買的嗎?
②The man, from whom I learned the news, is an engineer. 這人是一位工程師,我是從他那裡得到這個訊息的。
5. “介詞+ which(指物)/whom(指人)”用於被動結構的關係分句中,作狀語,說明動作的執行者。如:

①The wolf by which the sheep was killed was shot. 傷害羊的那隻狼被打死了。
②The man by whom the wolf was shot was a good hunter. 打死狼的那人是一個好獵手。
6. “名詞+ of which”代替“whose +名詞”在關係分句中作定語。如:
 ①I saw some trees, the leaves of which (= whose leaves ) were black with disease. 我看見一些樹,它們的葉子因害病而發黑。
②He mentioned a book, the title of which (= whose title) I’ve forgotten. 他提到一本書,書名我忘了。
7. “介詞+ which(指物)/whose(指人)”修飾後邊的名詞。如
①It rained all night and all day, during which time the ship broke into pieces. 雨下了一天一夜,就在這期間輪船撞碎了。
②The driver was the man from whose room she had stolen the maps. 司機就是那個男人,她從他的房間偷走地圖。
8. “介詞+ which +不定式”。此種用法多見於正文體中,相當於一個帶有主語和謂語的定語從句。如:

She had only 1.87 with which to buy (= she could buy) Jim, her husband, a present. 她只有一元八角七分錢,用這些錢她給丈夫吉姆買一件禮物。

三、介詞的正確選擇

1. 根據後面動詞和介詞的搭配關係選擇。如:
①This is not the book of which the teacher spoke in class. (speak of 意為“談論”,相當於talk about)
②The two things of which they felt proud were Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. (be / feel proud of 為固定短語,意為“以……自豪”。)
2. 根據前面的名詞的搭配關係選擇。如:

①I’ll never forget the day on which I first met him. (表示具體的某一天,介詞用on)
②The boy pointed to the direction in which he would run. (“朝……方向”,介詞用in)
3. 有時需同時考慮動詞和介詞的搭配關係及介詞和名詞的搭配關係。如:

The clever boy made a hole in the wall, through which he could see what was happening inside the house.

三、介詞和關係代詞

1)介詞後面的關係代詞不能省略。

2)“that”前“Do you”作介詞的賓語,且可以省略。

例如:(1)The school(that/which)he once studied in is very famous.

“that/which”可以省略。= The school in which he once studied is very famous.“which”不可省略。

(2) 含有介詞的短語動詞一般不拆開,介詞仍放在短語動詞的後面。如:look for, look after, take care of等。T This is the watch which/that I am looking for.(T=正確)F This is the watch for which I am looking.(F=錯誤)

2. 若介詞放在關係代詞前,關係代詞指人時用“whom”,不可用“who”或者“that”;指物時用“which”,不能用“that”;關係代詞是所有格時用“whose”

(1)The man with whom you talked is my friend.(T)The man famous.

(2)I bought many books yesterday, three of which are written by Lu Xun.

四、關係代詞關係代詞(一般情況下)“that”可用在從句做主語,謂動詞的賓語,但是不能做介詞的賓語。“which”指物,在從句中作主語;“whom”在從句中作賓語;“why”在從句中修語,先行詞通常是“the reason”;有時“why”也可用“for+which”代替。

例:A doctor who looks after people's health.主語 謂語 先行詞 定語從句修飾先行詞

五、判斷介詞和關係代詞方法一 : 用關係代詞還是關係副詞完全取決於從句中的謂語動詞:不及物動詞後面無賓語,就必須要求用關係副詞或者是介詞加關係代詞;而及物動詞後接賓語,則要求用關係代詞。

例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

判斷改錯:(錯) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(錯) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(對) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.

(對) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

例. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held?A. where B. that C. on which D. the one,解析: 主、謂、賓俱全,從句部分為句子的狀語表地點,既可用副詞where,又因 in the museum詞組,可用介詞in + which 引導地點狀語。而此題中,介詞on 用的不對,所以選A。

關係詞的選擇依據在從句中所做的成分,先行詞在從句中做主、賓語時,選擇關係代詞(who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行詞在從句中做狀語時,應選擇關係副詞(“where”地點狀語,“when”時間狀語,“why”原因狀語)。

從句區別

限定性從句和非限定性從句的區別

(1)從結構上來看,限定性從句不能用逗號與先行詞分開;而非限定性從句卻必須用逗號分開。引導非限定性從句的關係代詞不能省略。例如:

The clock,which my great-grandfather bought,is still in good order.

這時鐘是我曾祖父買的,現 在還是走得很準。

(2)兩種形容詞性從句往往賦予同一個先行詞以不同的含義。例如:

My sister who lives in London is a doctor.

我住在倫敦的妹妹是醫生。

My sister,who lives in London,is a doctor.

我的妹妹是一個醫生,她住在倫敦。

(3)非限定性從句可以把整個主句當作先行詞,而限定性從句沒有這種功能。非限定性從句修飾整個主句時,只能用which或as來引導。例如:

I said nothing,which made him still more angry.

我一聲不吭,這使他更加生氣。

He was a Frenchman,as I could tell from his accent.

他是個法國人,我從他的口音中可以聽出來。

He was drunk,which seemed to make a bad impression on the policeman.

他喝醉了,這似乎給警察留下了不好的印象。

特定選擇

關係詞

1、只用that不用which

1)當先行詞是序數詞或被序數詞、最高級,關係詞用that。

2)當先行詞既有人又有物時,用that。

3)當先行詞帶有the only,the very,the same,the last,the one等詞時,用that。

4)當主句中有who或which時,為避免重複用that。

5)當先行詞為something,anything,nothing,none,no,little,much,all等不定代詞時用that。

2、只用who不用that

1)如果先行詞是those,they,all,person s,people,he,anyone,one時用who

2)當先行詞指人並含有較長的後置定語從句或在被分割的定語從句中時。

3、只用which不用that

1)當主句先行詞後有介詞時,用which。例:This is the one of which I'm speaking。

2)非限定性定語從句,用which。

3) 描述句中一般用which。例:Beijing,which was China's capital for more than 800years。

4)those +複數名詞之後,多用which .例:Shopkeeper want to keep a number of those goods which sell best。

5)先行詞本身是that時,用which。

有關短文

Don't forget the things that once you owned. 曾經擁有的,不要忘記。

Treasure the things that you can't get. 不能得到的,更要珍惜。

Don't give up the things that belongs to you and keep those lost things in memory. 屬於自己的,不要放棄; 已經失去的,留作記憶。

誤區提醒

1)當表示時間或地點的名詞作先行詞時,要判斷出它們在從句中作狀語還是主語或賓語。作狀語時用關係副詞,反之用關係代詞。

典型例題:I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together.

A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when

答案:A

解析:兩個先行詞the day都是表示時間的名詞,但第一個空白處要填的關係詞在從句中作狀語,因此要用關係副詞when. 第二個空白處要填的關係詞在從句中作動詞spent的賓語,因此要用關係代詞which或that來引導定語從句.

2)當主語為物時,不能用who

3)there be句型中,指人用who指物用that。

4)當主句中缺少主語或表語時,用the one。

5)當出現先行詞+介詞時,關係詞只能用whom或which

6)當出現先行詞+介詞時,注意判斷介詞與從句謂語是否有關係,以確定為定語從句

有關練習題

單項選擇

1.Don’t talk about such things of__________you are not sure.
A.which B.what C.as D.those

2.Is this the factory__________you visited the otherday?
A.that B.where C.inwhich D.theone

3.Is this factory__________some foreign friends visited last Friday?

A.that B.where C.which D.theone

4.Is this the factory__________heworked ten years ago?
A.that B.where C.which D.theone

5.The wolveshid themselves in the places__________couldn’t befound.
A.that B.where C.inwhich D.inthat

6.The freezing pointis the temperature__________water changes intoice.
A.atwhich B.onthat C.inwhich D.ofwhat

7.This book will show you__________can beused inother contexts..
A.how you have observed B.what you have observed
C.that you have observed D.how that you have observed

8.There asonis__________he is unable to operate them achine.
A.because B.why C.that D.whether

9.I’lltellyou__________hetoldmelastweek.
A.allwhich B.that C.allthat D.which
10.Thattree,__________branchesarealmostbare,isveryold.
A.whose B.ofwhich C.inwhich D.onwhich
11.Ihaveboughtthesamedress__________sheiswearing.
A.as B.that C.which D.what
12.Hefailedintheexamination,__________madehisfatherveryangry. A.which B.it C.that D.what
13.We’retalkingaboutthepianoandthepianist__________wereintheconcertweattendedlastnight.
A.which B.whom C.who D.that
14.Thegirl__________anEnglishsonginthenextroomisTom’ssister.
A.whoissinging B.issinging C.sang D.wassinging
15.Those__________notonlyfrombooksbutalsothroughpracticewillsucceed.
A.learn B.who C.thatlearns D.wholearn
16.Anyone__________thisopinionmayspeakout.
A.thatagainsts B.thatagainst
C.whoisagainst D.whoareagainst
17.Didn’tyouseetheman__________?
A.Inoddedjustnow B.whomInoddedjustnow
C.Inoddedtohimjustnow D.Inoddedtojustnow
18.Canyoulendmethenovel__________theotherday?
A.thatyoutalked B.youtalkedaboutit
C.whichyoutalkedwith D.youtalkedabout
19.Isthereanything__________toyou?
A.thatisbelonged B.thatbelongs
C.thatbelong D.whichbelongs
20.----“Howdoyoulikethebook?”
----“It’squitedifferentfrom__________Ireadlastmonth.”
A.that B.which C.theone D.theonewhat
21.Mr.Zhanggavethetextbooktoallthepupilsexcept__________whohadalreadytakenthem.
A.theones B.ones C.some D.theothers
22.Thetrain__________shewastravellingwaslate.
A.which B.where C.onwhich D.inthat
23.Hehaslostthekeytothedrawer__________thepapersarekept.
A.where B.inwhich C.underwhich D.which
24.Antarctic__________weknowverylittleiscoveredwiththickicealltheyearround.
A.which B.where C.that D.aboutwhich
25.It’sthethirdtime__________latethismonth.
A.thatyouarrived B.whenyouarrived
C.thatyou’vearrived D.whenyou’vearrived
26.Itwasin1969__________theAmericanastronautsucceededinlandingonthemoon.
A.that B.which C.when D.inwhich
27.Maythefourthistheday__________weChinesepeoplewillneverforget.
A.which B.when C.onwhich D.aboutwhich
28.WearegoingtospendtheSpringFestivalinGuangzhou,__________livemygrandparentsandsomerelatives.
A.which B.that C.who D.where
29.Thehotel__________duringourholidaysstandsbytheseaside.
A.westayedat B.wherewestayedat
C.westayed D.inthatwestayed
30.Isitinthatfactory__________“RedFlag”carsareproduced?
A.inwhich B.where C.which D.that 31.ItistheSuezCanal__________separatesAsia__________Africa.
A.which,to B.where,from
C.that,from D.that,with
32.Underthebridge,however,almostdirectlybelow,__________wasasmallcanoe,withaboyinit.
A.there B.where C.it D.which
33.Heisnot__________afool__________.
A.such,asheislooked B.such,ashelooks
C.as,asheislooked D.so,ashelooks
34.Isthatthereason__________youareinfavouroftheproposal?
A.which B.what C.why D.forthat
35.HemustbefromAfrica,__________canbeseenfromhisskin.
A.that B.as C.who D.what
36.Hehastwosons,__________workaschemists.
A.twoofwhom B.bothofwhom
C.bothofwhich D.allofwhom
37.I,__________yourgoodfriend,willtrymybesttohelpyouout.
A.whois B.whoam C.thatis D.whatis
38.Heisamanofgreatexperience,__________muchcanbelearned.
A.who B.that C.fromwhich D.fromwhom
39.----Doyouknowthetownatall?
----No,thisisthefirsttimeI__________here.
A.was B.havebeen C.came D.amcoming
40.Idon’tlike__________youspeaktoher.
A.theway B.thewayinthat

C.thewaywhich D.thewayofwhich
41.Thetwothings__________theyfeltveryproudareJim’sgoldwatchandDella’shair.
A.aboutwhich B.ofwhich C.inwhich D.forwhich
42.Thedinnerwasthemostexpensivemealwe__________.
A.wouldhave B.havehad
C.hadneverhad D.hadeverhad
43.Doyouknowwhichhotel__________?
A.sheisstaying B.sheisstayingin
C.isshestaying D.isshestayingin
44.Thereisonlyonething__________Icando.
A.what B.that C.all D.which
45.Whocanthinkofasituation__________thisidiomcanbeused?
A.which B.that C.where D.inthat
46.Ihavemanybooks,someof__________areonchemistry.
A.them B.that C.which D.those
47.Theywereinterested__________youtoldthem.
A.inwhich B.inthat C.allthat D.ineverything
48.Theastronautdidmanyexperimentsinthespaceship,__________muchhelpforknowingspace.
A.whichwethinkitis B.whichwethinkareof
C.ofwhichwethinkis D.Ithinkwhichisof
49.Thegreatdaywelookedforwardto__________atlast.
A.come B.came C.coming D.comes
50.Ilikethesecondfootballmatch__________washeldlastweek.A.which B.who C.that D./

語法填空

1.This is the mountain village ________ I stayed last year.
2.This is the mountain village ________ I visited last year,.
3.I’ll never forget the days ________ I spent in the countryside.
4.I’ll never forget the days ________ I worked together with you.
5.I forget the time ________ he will come.
6.I forget the time ________ he told me.
7.The reason ________ he can’t come is that he is ill.
8.The reason ________ he told me is not true.
9.This is the factory ________ I visited last year.
10.This is the factory _______ I worked last year.
11.This is the factory _______ produces all kinds of TV sets.
12.This is the reason ________ he was absent.
13.This is the reason _______ can explain his absence.

參考答案

單項選擇答案

1—5AADBA6—10ABCCA11—15AADAD
16—20CDDBC21—25ACBDC26—30AADAD
31—35CABCB36—40BBDBA41—45BDBBC
46—50CDBBC

語法填空答案

1. where
2. which
3. which / than
4. when
5. when
6. which
7. why
8. which / that
9. which
10.where
11.which
12.why
13.which

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