副詞從句

因為從句起著名詞、形容詞和副詞的作用,所以一些語法學家把從句分為名詞從句(noun clause)、形容詞從句(adjective clause)和副詞從句(adverb clause)。

基本信息

術語概述

因為從句起著名詞、形容詞和副詞的作用,所以一些語法學家把從句分為名詞從句(noun clause)、形容詞從句(adjective clause)和副詞從句(adverb clause);但從句同時也起著句子成分的作用,因而也有一些語法學家把從句分為主語從句(subject clause)、賓語從句(object clause)和狀語從句(adverbial clause)。由此可以看出,副詞從句和狀語從句是同一概念兩種表達術語。副詞從句是在句中起副詞作用的主謂結構,它可以修飾主句中的動詞(a)、形容詞和副詞(b)或整個主句(c):
a. He asked me to stay where I was.
Don't come before We Are Ready for you.
I'll go wherever the party sends me.
b. She has made greater progress than we expected.
Winter came earlier than it ever did before.
He speaks so clearly that we understand every word he says.
c. No matter what the others may say, I stick to my opinion.
Seeing that the weather has improved, we shall be able to enjoy our game.
副詞從句可以用來表示地點、時間、原因、比較、讓步、目的和結果等意義。

相關詞條

1 表示時間、地點的副詞從句(Clauses of time and place)
1.1 由when, while, as; until, not until; before, after; whenever等引導的副詞從句
a. when, while, as意為"當…時候"。when和as可以表示"點時間",也可以表示"一段時間";while只能表 示"一段時間"。
--When he arrives he'll tell us all about the match.
--When she was a child, she lived in Shanghai.
--While he shaved he thought about the coming interview.
--As they were talking, the rain began. .
--As I left the house I remembered the key. .
--As she came to know him better she relied on him more. .
--As it grew darker it became colder. .
注意:
1.as多用來連線兩個逐漸發展或演變的動作或狀態。例如:We advance in experience as we advance in years.
2.當as意為"當…時候"時,主要與表示動作或發展過程的動詞連用,一般情況下它不與下列動詞連用,表示感覺的動詞如feel, taste, smell等;表示感情和情緒的動詞如admire (respect), appreciate (= value), desire, fear, hate等;表示精神活動的動詞如:agree, believe, mean, know, recall, remember, suppose, understand等;表示擁有的動詞如belong, own, possess等。
b. till, until
當till和until引導的從句在主句後,且主句的謂語動詞含有come, finish, go, reach, return, start等一 時性動作動詞時,主句的謂語用否定形式,即not… till (until),其意為"直到…才"。
--I asked Peter not to sign the agreement until he has heard from us. .
--He didn't reach the station until after the train had left. .
--I am afraid I can not finish the work till he arrives.
當主句的謂語是表持續性的動詞如:remain, stay, wait等時,主句謂語用肯定形式:
--I'll stay till you come back. .
--Let's wait until the rain stops. .
--We ran and ran, till I thought my heart would burst. .
在句首時,多用until:
--Until you told me, I had no idea of it.
--Not until I had read your letter did I understand the true state of affairs. .
--Not until he came back did I know it.
not until常用於"It was not until… that…"這一強調結構中:
--It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs.
--It was not until he came back that I knew it.
注意:
1.在多數情況下,till和untill可以通用。
2.在till和until所引導的從句中,謂語不可用shall, will或would。
c. before, after
before和after可以用just, right, immediately, sometime, a long time等修飾語修飾,以表示精確的時間。
--I took the examination a year before my brother did. .
--He was still tired even after he had had eight hours of sleeping. .
--I'll do it after I finish this work.
before和after可作介詞、副詞。
--He was killed in a car accident four years after their marriage.
--Please come before 5 o'clock.
--I never met him before.
--Let me go in and you follow after.
注意:
before作介詞用,在表示時間時,不可接一段時間,須接一特定的點時間。
d. whenever(無論何時)
whenever主要用於引導一個頻度狀語,表示該情景是重複出現的:
--It rains whenever we are camping.
--Whenever that man says "To tell you the truth", I suspect that he's about to tell a lie.
--Whenever we met with difficulties, they came to help us.
whenever引導的時間副詞從句時常兼有讓步的含義,有時讓步的意味比時間的意味還強。例如:
--I'll discuss it with you whenever you like.
--I'd like to see you whenever it's convenient.
注意:
在口語中常用every time代替whenever
--You get younger every time I see you.
--Every time I catch a cold, I have pain in my back.
1.2 由as long as, every time, each time, next time, last time等引導的時間副詞從句as long as意為"在…的時候";every time意為"每次";each time意為"每逢…的時候";next time意為"下次";last time意為"上次";by the time意為"在…時候以前"。
--You can never enter this house as long as I live in it.
(我住在這裡的時候,你永遠不許進入這個房子。)
--As long as (= while) I live, you will not want for anything.
(只要我活在世上,你就不會缺乏任何東西。)
as long as引導的從句有很強的條件含義:
--I'm happy as long as my children are.
--He'll continue working so long as he has the strength.
--She smiles every time she sees me.
--Each time she got into trouble, she would ask me for help.
--I'm going to see him next time he comes to Shanghai.
--He had impressed me the way the first time I met him.
(我第一次碰到他時他就給我這個印象。)
--By the time the alarm went off, I was awake.
--Last time I saw Mary, she said he was going to France.
1.3 由once, as soon as, the moment (that), the instant (that), the minute (that), directly, immediately, instantly引導的副詞從句該詞組引導的副詞從句表示主句的動作在從句的動作一瞬間之後。這組連線詞的含義為"一…就…"。
--Once you see her, you will find what I say is true.
--Once you object to a man, everything he does is wrong.
once引導的副詞從句同時含有時間和條件意味:
--Once you understand this rule, you will have no further difficulty.
= As soon as you understand this rule, you will have no further difficulty.
= If you understand this rule, you will have no further difficulty.
--She wept aloud as soon as she heard the news.
--The moment she saw me her face lighted up with a smile.
--The instant he opened the door, a dog ran in.
--The minute (that) he saw me, he began to cry.
--I'll give you an answer immediately I've finished reading your file.
--Instantly the button is pressed, the mine explodes.
--Everyone will see the misprint directly they pick the book up.
注意:
the moment, the instant, the minute是名詞當連詞用,後面可接that,但通常省略;directly,immediately, instantly是副詞當連詞用。
1.4 由since, ever since引導的副詞從句
該組副詞從句表示主句動作的開始時間,從句中謂語動詞通常用一般過去時態,而主句中謂語
動詞通常用現在完成時態
--I haven't seen John since he returned from Paris.
--It has been raining ever since I came home.
--It has been ten years since my father left home.
--Since I started swimming, I have lost five pounds.
It is … 和It has been… 可以通用。例如:
--It is five years since he joined the army.
--It has been five years since he joined the army.
1.5 由no sooner… than, barely / hardly / scarcely… when引導的副詞從句
該組副詞從句表示主句的動作發生在從句的動作一瞬間之前。這組連線詞的含義為"一…就…"。
如果把no sooner, barely, hardly, scarcely置於句首就須用倒裝結構。
--She had no sooner heard the news than she fainted.
--No sooner had she heard the news than she fainted.
--He had barely arrived at the station when the train began to leave.
--Barely had he arrived at the station when the train began to leave.
--I had scarcely come in when the phone rang.
--Scarcely had I come in when the phone rang.
--We had hardly got into the country when it began to rain.
--Hardly had we got into the country when it began to rain.
注意:
在這組句型中,主句的謂語動詞通常用過去完成式,而副詞從句的動詞通常用過去式。
1.6 由where, wherever引導的表示地點的副詞從句
--Where there is no rain, farming is difficult or possible.
--We will meet wherever the committee decides.
--She follows him wherever he goes.
wherever引導的從句有時具有很強的讓步含義,特別是當wherever引導的從句放在主句前,而且謂語動詞有may或might等情態動詞時。
--Wherever you may go, he will not forget you.
everywhere (that)和anywhere (that)也可以引導表示地點的副詞從句,其功能和意義和wherever相近。
--Everywhere they appeared there were ovations.
(無論走到哪裡,他們都受到熱烈歡迎。)
--Everywhere I go, I find the same thing.
--You may go anywhere you like.
注意:
地點副詞從句可以放在主句的前面或後面。放在主句前面時,常用逗號把它同主句隔開;如放主句後,就不用逗號隔開。 在
2 表示原因、目的和結果的副詞從句(Clauses of cause, purpose and result)
2.1 because, since, as because, since, as是引導表示原因的副詞從句最常用的三個詞,其中because語氣最強, since次之,as語氣最弱。
a. because從句通常置於主句之後,強調直接原因;有時也可置於主句之前。
--He was angry because we were late. .
--The fuse blew because we have overloaded the circuit.
--Because it was too dark to go on, we camped there.
--Because he wants us to make rapid progress, the teacher is strict with us.
b. 可以用否定詞not和並列連詞but形成並列because從句:
--I'm going on a trip tomorrow, because I have to, not because I want to.
--He stole, not because he wanted the money but because he liked.
(他偷東西,並不是因為他想要錢,而是他有這種毛病。)
c. 在強調原因分句時,只能用because從句,而不能用since從句或as從句:
--It was because he was ill that he didn't go with us.
--It is because he has behaved so badly that he must be punished.
注意:
1.在回答以疑問詞why開頭的問句時,只能用because而不能用since或as。
2.並列連詞for從句表示因果關係時,可以和because交替使用。
--could not have seen me, for / because I was not there.
所不同的只是because從句的位置可前可後,而for從句只能後置。
當for從句不表示因果關係,而只是對前面主句的內容加以解釋或推斷時,這時,because不能代替for。
--It rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.
d. 由as或since引導的原因副詞從句,只是附帶說明主句的內容,它通常位於主句之前,但有時也可置於主句之後。
--As he was such a fool, I refused to listen to him.
--As the soup was very salty, we were thirsty afterwards
(因為這湯很鹹,後來我們渴得厲害。)
--As there was very little support, the strike was not successful.
--I left the party at 10 p.m. as I had to get up early the next day.
由於since表示的原因,指的是講話者和聽話者已知的事實,since除有"因為"意義外,還含有"既然" 之意。
--Since he can't answer the question, you'd better ask someone else.
--Since no one is against it, we will adopt the proposal. .
--Since you can't type the letter yourself, you'll have to ask Susan to do it for you. .
--He can't be very tired, since he has walked only half a mile.
2.2 由 now ( that)(因為,既然),seeing that(因為,鑒於),considering that(鑒於,考慮到),in that(因為)引導的表原因的副詞從句
--Now (that) you are a big boy, you must behave better.
(既然你是個大孩子了,你的行為必須檢點些。)
--Now (that) you have finished the work, you are free to do what you like.
--Seeing that it is raining hard tonight, we will have to stay here for the night.
--Seeing that it seems as if it will rain soon, we had better leave now.
--Considering that he is a boy, I forgive his bad manners.
--He did poorly in his examinations, considering that he had studied hard for them.
--Men differ from brutes in that they can think and speak.
(人與獸類的區別在於人能思維和講話。)
--The speech is all the more important in that it was made by a man of authority.
注意:
1.在口語裡常把now that中的that省去,這時now與表示原因的as和since有相同意義。
2.now (that)引導的副詞從句,時間意義很強時,被看作時間副詞從句。
--Now that I come to think of it, I see you are right.
3.in that的含義為"in the fact that(因為…的事實)",相當於because。
2.3 由that, so that, in order that, for fear that引導的表示目的副詞從句
a. 當主句的動詞為現在時、現在完成時或將來時時,that, so that和in order that後從句的謂語多用 may / can / will +動詞原形。
--Bring it nearer that I may see it better.
--Ships carry lifeboats so that the crew can escape if the ship sinks.
--These men risk their lives in order that we may live more safely.
--I have lit the fire so that the house will be warm when they return.
b. 當主句的動詞為一般過去時、過去進行時或過去完成時時,that, so that和in order that後從句的謂語多用should, could, might或would +動詞原形。
--They died that we might live.(他們是為了我們的生存而死的。)
--We arrived early so that we could get good seats.
--He wrote his diary in code so that his wife wouldn't be able to read it.
(為了不讓妻子看懂,他用密碼寫日記。)
--We hid it carefully so that no one should see it.
--We sent the letter by air mail in order that it might reach them in good time.
--In order that no one might enter, the servant locked the door.
c. lest, for fear和in case引導的表目的的副詞從句,含義為"以免;唯恐;以防備;為了不"。
--I put away my pistol lest he should touch it.
--Steel and iron products are often coated lest they should rust.
(鋼鐵製品常常塗以保護層,以免生鏽。)
--I'll be kind to her lest she decide to leave me.
--He has been working hard for fear that he should fail in the final exams.
--I bought the car at once for fear (that) he might change his mind.
--Shut the window for fear (that) it may rain.
--You must be quiet in case the fish are frightened.
--Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold.
--You'd better get his room ready in case he should come home today.
注意:
1.lest後從句的謂語多由should +動詞原形,有時只用動詞原形。
2.for fear (that)後從句的謂語可以用should / might或would +動詞原形,或 may / shall / will +動詞原形。
3.in case後從句的謂語形式可根據主句謂語形式相應變化;在對從句談到的事沒有足夠把握時,可以用should +動詞原形。
2.4 由so… that, such… that等表結果的副詞從句引導的副詞從句
在so… that和such… that中,so是副詞,其後可以接動詞、形容詞、副詞;而such為形容詞,其後只可接名詞。
--She is so honest a girl that all her teachers like her.
--The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered.
--The bus was so full that I could hardly turn around.
--We left in such a hurry that we forgot to lock the door.
--They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house.
--He spoke in such low voice that I could not hear him.
--There was so much dust that we couldn't see what was happening.
--So many students complained that the teacher cancelled the pretest.
so放在句首,句子要用倒裝語序
--So absorbed was he that Nathalie hadn't dared to make a sound.
--So terrible was the storm that the whole roof was ripped off.
(這場暴風雨真可怕,把整個屋頂全都刮飛了。)
注意:
such不能用於much和many之前。
3 讓步、對比副詞從句(Clauses of concession, and contrast
3.1 由even if / even though(即使,雖然)引導的讓步副詞從句
even if / even though引導的讓步從句指事實時,從句的謂語用陳述式;但若從句的內容是對現在
或將來情況的假設,從句謂語用相應的虛擬式。例如:
--Even if I were busy, I would go dancing.(我現在不忙)
--Even if I am busy, I will go dancing. (我現在的確很忙)
--You mustn't be conceited even if you have achieved great success.
--Even if you don't like him, you can still be polite.
(即使你不喜歡他,你仍可禮貌些。)
--Even if I were starving, I would not ask a favor of him.
--I shouldn't have time to see him even though he were here.
--I used to love listening to her, even though I could only understand about half of what she said.
3.2 由 no matter how / what / which等引導的讓步從句
a. no matter +疑問詞意為"無論…",其後從句謂語可以用may +動詞原形或其他相應形式。
--Don't believe the rumor, no matter who repeats it
--No matter what you do, don't touch this switch.
--Our aim is to recruit(招聘)the best person for the job, no matter where they are from.
--No matter which you may choose, you will be pleased.
--No matter when the invaders come, they will be wiped out clean.
--No matter how rich people are, they always seem anxious to make more money.
b. 疑問詞+ever含義為"無論…",也可同樣引導讓步副詞從句,該從句的謂語可以用may +動詞原形或其他相應形式。
--However far it is, I intend to drive there tonight.
--I will go, whatever He may say.
--You will see this product advertised wherever you like.
--Whatever happens don't forget to write.
注意:
1. whatever, however, whichever, whoever; no matter how/ what / which / who所引導的表讓步副詞從句句意明確時,謂語動詞be可省略。
--No matter how high one's official position, one should act as an ordinary worker among the people.
--We are going to seaside whatever the weather.
--This viewpoint, however understandable (it is), is wrong.
2. 讓步副詞從句也常有although, considering that, though, much as, while, whereas(鑒於), however much / good(無論多么多/多么好等引導。
3.3 由whereas, while引導的對比副詞從句
whereas和while引導表示對比關係的副詞從句時意為"而,卻;反之"。
--He is ill, whereas I'm only a little tired.
(他病了,而我只不過稍疲倦罷了。)
--To every child adult approval means love, whereas disapproval means hate.
--Wise men love truth, whereas fools shun it.
(聰明人愛真理,而傻子卻逃避它。)
--His wife went out, while he stayed at home.
--Motion is absolute while stagnation is relative.
(運動是絕對的,而靜止是相對的。)
--While I did well in class, I was a poor performer at games.

種類

1. 時間從句
同時性:tandis que, pendan que, cependant que, tant que, aussi longtemps que, chaque fois que, toutes les fois que, au moment où, à mesure que, 直陳式或條件式表示可能性
主句在後:après que, des que, depuis que, du moment où(que),sitôt que, à peine... que, 直陳式或條件式表示可能性
主句在前:avant que, jusqu’à ce que, jusqu’au moment où (que),en attendant que, sans attendre que, 虛擬式表示構想
意義模糊:quand, lorsque, comme, maintenant que, 特例:que , avant le moment où, en attendant le moment où, 直陳式
2. 原因從句
客觀說明原因:parce que, puisque, comme, étant donné que, vu que, du fait que, attendu que,
以前形成原因:dès que, dès lors que, du moment que, 特別的原因:d’autant que, d’autant plus que, surtout que,
表示藉口:sous prétexte que, 內涵的原因:tant, tellment, 形式上是並列句,
假想中或已被否定的原因:soit que…soit que, non que...mais, ce n’est pas que, non pas que...mais, 虛擬式
一般情況用直陳式, 表示可能或想像中認為可能的情況時用條件式。
3. 目的從句 (全部要用虛擬式)
主語的意圖和目的:afin que, pour que
躲避和擺脫:de peur que, de crainte que, crainte que, par crainte que, par peur que,
否定式:將ne…pas放於從句謂語兩側或者夾在表示目的的從屬短語之間,主句是命令句,從句用que引導,從句如果是否定式可單用ne表示否定。
4. 後果從句(黑體字的部分由目的從句轉化而來,和主句是否定疑問結構時用虛擬式)
一般後果:de(telle)sorte que, en sorte que, de(telle)façon que, de(telle)manière que, sans que, si bien que,
強烈行動產生後果:四種情況
A, 動詞加au point que, tellement que, tant que, trop, assez…pour que, B, 形容詞加si…que, trop(assez)…pour que,
C, 副詞加si…que, tellement que, trop(assez)…pour que, D, 名詞加tel…que, tant de…que, trop(assez)de…pour que,
主句是疑問或驚嘆句或表示強度時用 que引導,
5. 讓步從句(大部分用虛擬式,對立的推測事件用條件式,對立事實用直陳式)
平和的讓步:bien que, encore que, quoique, malgré que
強烈的讓步:A, quelque, quel加名詞加que B, si, tout, queleque, pour加形容詞加que
C, si, tout, quelque加副詞加que D, qui que, qui que ce soit qui(que), quoi que, quoi que ce soit qui (que)最強烈
與主句對立的讓步:A, 時間副詞quand, alors que, lorsque, tandis que, pendant que, B, si C, au lieu que, là où, loin que,
中等的讓步:que, soi que…soit que
6. 條件從句(黑體字部分用虛擬式, 斜體字部分可用虛擬式或直陳式,劃線部分用條件式)
純粹的可能性,或然性:que, quand, quand même, 純粹的假設:au cas où, supposé que, en admettant que, à supposer que
假設加上限制:à moins que 最普通的假設:si 條件式按要求 條件加願望:pourvu que 和數量:pour peu que
假設的交替:soit que…soit que, que…ou que, suivant que(…ou que), selon que…ou que 補充:si tant est que, à(la)condition que, moyennant que,dans le cas où, dans l’hypothèse où, 注意:混合條件式;si引導的從句2個以上時que 替代重複的部分但在其引導的從句中要用虛擬式。
7. 比較從句(一般用直陳式,表示可能和假想時用條件式)
與主句等同一致:comme, ainsi que, de même que, comme si (未完成動作用未完成過去時,完成動作用愈過去時),
與主句的形容詞或副詞等同一致:aussi…que, autant…que
對主句傾向的襯托:plutôt que, plus que
不同不一致:plus, moins, meilleur, pire, autre, mieux 加que 引導
按比例變化關係:d’autant plus que, d’autant moins que, au fur et à mesure que, dans la mesure où, à proportion que,
8. 增加從句:用outre que 引導, 用直陳式或條件式
9. 限制從句:用excepté que, sauf que, hormis que, hors que, si ce n’est que 引導,

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