位語從句

語法系列複習專題九-----名詞從句、定語從句。以及需要注意的地方也詳細的提出了。

語法系列複習專題九-----名詞從句、定語從句

語法講解

名詞從句有四類:賓語從句主語從句表語從句同位語從句。例如:
賓語從句:I don’t know where he will go.
主語從句:Where he will go is unknown.
表語從句:The problem is how we can get so much money.
同位語從句:We all feel sorry about the news that he failed in the game.
下面幾點是學習名詞從句要加以注意的:
1. whether和if都可以引導賓語從句表達“是否”意,(即引導賓語從句時if和whether
可以互換)但以下幾種名詞從句要用whether(不用if)引導:
(1) 引導主語從句,且在句首時。例:Whether he has won the tennis is not known.(但
It is not known whether/if he has won the tennis).
(2) 引導表語從句時。例The problem is whether he can get a job.
(3) 引導同位語從句時。例:I have no idea whether he will come.
(4) 介詞後的whether從句。例:I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.
2. 位於句首引導主語從句的that不可忘。
例如:That he got the first place in the competition surprised all of us.
3. 在“It is suggested/proposed/ordered/a pity/no wonder/necessary/strange/…+
that從句”結構中,that從句謂語有時用(should)do這樣的虛擬語氣形式。
例如:It is suggested that we(should) improve the relations between us.
It is a pity that one(should) stay in one place all one´s life.
It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings(缺點).
4. 在“The reason why…is that…”句式中that不要誤為because.
例如:The reason why he didn´t go to school yesterday is that he was ill.
5. 名詞從句中that,what用法比較:
引導名詞從句的that是連詞,在句中無成份,無意義,而what是連線代詞,what=the
thing(s) that.
例如:It was told in yesterday´s newspaper that what the students had done was praised
by the factory.
I know that he will study.
I know what he will study.
That he works hard at his lessons is known to us all.
What he works hard at is known to us all.
All I ask is that you should tell the truth./He is not what(=the person that)he
used to be.他和以前大不相同了。
6. where在名詞從句中的使用特點:
where在名詞從句中有時可以變為“the place where”,有時可以變為“介詞+the place where” 形式。例如:
主從:Where(=The place where)she has gone is still unknown.
賓從:Would you please tell me where(=the place where) Mr Smith lives?
表從:Your dictionary remains where(=in/at the place where)you put.
同位從:Have you any idea where(=of the place where) she is spending her holidays?
7. 無論是哪種名詞從句都是陳述語序。例如:
I know where he lives./Please tell me what her name is.
當一個特殊疑問句本身就是陳述語序(即“主+謂+(賓)”或“主+系+表”結構),將其變為間接引語(即賓語從句)時,無需改變語序。例如:
What´s the matter with him? She asked me what was the matter with him.
Who looks after your grandfather? He asked me who looked after my grandfather.

名詞從句考點分析

1.They want to know ______ do to help us. (NMET)
A. what they can B. how they can C. how can they D. what can they
析:此題要選陳述語序項,故應排除C、D。又因how they can do不完整,do後無賓
語,故也應排除,只有A項既是陳述語序,且what they can do完整正確地表達出“他
們能做些什麼”這一意思,故答案為A。
2.His teacher ______ he ______ bright and ______ he was worth teaching.
A.didn’t think;was;that B.thought;was;whether
C.didn’t think;was;× D.thought;wasn´t;×
析:觀察題目,可知think後跟有and連線的兩個並列賓語從句,這時前一個賓語從句
的引導語that可以省略,但引導後一賓語從句的that不可省略,據此,可排除C、D
兩個選項。若選B項,全句意思不通,而選擇A項可表達“他的老師認為他不聰明,不
值得教”這一意思,且語法結構無誤,故可定A是正確答案。
3.______ is done cannot be undone.
A.How B.That C.What D.Where
析:do一般作及物動詞使用,從題乾看,需選一詞作主語(邏輯上是done的賓語)。
而A.How,D.Where均是副詞,不能作主語,故應排除。B項that一詞只能在定語從句
中作主語,不能在主語從句中作主語,也應排除。只有選what(=the thing that),才
能正確表述“凡是做的不可不做”這一意思。
4.Take care ______ you don´t make mistakes in the coming exam.
A.of that B.about that C.for what D.that
析:take care是“注意”、“當心”意,後面可跟that引導的賓語從句來表達“當心
不要…”意思,據此,該題應選D。
5.To his surprise,the umbrella was not ______ he had put.
A.which B.where C.the place D.that
析:觀察題乾,was not後是表語,根據where在表語從句中相當於in/at the place where,
將其置於空白處則可表達“傘不在他當初放的地方”這一意思,而C選項缺少詞,不可
選。A、D項皆不合用。
6.______ we can´t get seems better than ______ we have.
A.what;what B.what;that C.that;that D.that;what
析:此題顯然是要表達“我們得不到的東西似乎比我們得到的東西好。”這一意思,即
“A seems better that B”結構,根據what=the thing(s) that這一特點,將其置
於兩空白處正好可以表達出前者比後者好這一意思,故答案為A。
7.______ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.
A.If B.Whether C.That D.Where
析:此題depends前的主語從句是一個不肯定的內容,在句首表“是否”意時,只能用
Whether,不可用If。故答案為B。
8.______ they are most interested in is ______ they can produce more and better
cars.
A.That;how B.What;how C.What;what D.That;that
析:is前面是一個主語從句,要表達“他們最感興趣的(東西)”這一意思,只能選what
填入空白;is是表語從句,顯然只有選how才能表達“如何生產更多更好的汽車”,故
答案為B。
9.He made a suggestion that the English test ______ until next Wednesday.
A.will be put off B.be put off C.will put off D.put off
析:suggestion,order,adivce等詞後的同位語從句謂語要用(should)do的形式,且
該句中test與put off為被動關係,故選B。
10.I don´t think ______ he said something like that is right.
A.that B.what C.whether D.when
析:此句think後是一賓語從句,這個賓語從句的主語在is之前,它是一個被動句。
因為he said something like that已經含有主、謂、賓、狀等成分,只有選不表意義,
不做成分的that才合適,故選A。
定語從句
一、 定語從句與引導詞
定語從句是在複合句中修飾某一名詞或代詞的從句。被修飾的名詞或代詞叫做選行詞,
而引導定語從句的詞叫引導詞,有關係代詞和關係副詞兩類。
懂得什麼樣的先行詞後用什麼樣的引導詞是學好定語從句的關鍵。
1. 關係代詞有:that,which,who,whom,whose,在定語從句中作主語、賓語中表語,whose
作定語。代人的有:who,whom,whose,that;代物的有:that,which,whose.例如:
The man who helped you is Mr White.(who代人,在定語從句中作主語)
That is the person(whom/who/that) you want to see.(whom,who,that代人,在定
語從句中作賓語,可省略)
I´m not the fool(that) you thought me to be.(that代人,在定從中作表語)
A dictionary is a useful book which(=that) tells us the meaning of words(which
或that代物,在定從中作主語)
2. 關係副詞有:when(指時間),where(指地點),why(指原因),在定語從句中作狀語。
例如:Would you suggest a time(when) we can have a talk?(when可省略)
The house where they live is not very large./This is the reason why he did not came to the meeting.
注意:不是表時間的先行詞都用when引導定從,不是表地點的先行詞都用where引導定從。例如:We´ll visit the factory which(=that) makes radios.
(which或that在定從中作主語,where不可用主語,故不可用)
They still remember the Happy Days(which/that) they spent in Beidaihe.
(which或that在定從中作spent的賓語,when不可作賓語,故不可用)
二、限制性定語從句與非限制性定語從句
限制性定語從句和主句之間不用逗號分開,修飾主句中的某一個名詞或名詞詞組或代
詞;非限制性定語從句常用逗號和主句隔開,可以修飾主句中的某一個詞,也可修飾整個句子。非限制性定語從句不能用that引導,引導非限制性定語從句的關係詞不能省略。非限制性定語從句例:Li Ping´s father, who works in a factory, is an engineer./He tore up my photo, which made me very angry.(which指代主句內容,因前後兩句是因果關係,此時which不可換為as。)
He is good at physics, as is known to us all.=As is known to us all, he is good at physics.(as指代主句內容,在as is known/believed, as we all know/believe這類結構中as不可換為which)
三、 只用that引導和不用that引導的場合
1. 只用that引導和不用that引導的場合
1) 當先行詞既包括人又包括物時:He talked about the men and the books that attracted
him.
2) 指物的先行詞被any, every, only, very, all, no等修飾時:These are the very points that interest me./That´s the only watch that I like most.
3) 指物的先行詞被序數詞或形容詞最高級修飾時:The first step that we are to take is very difficult./This is the second card that he gave me.
4) 先行詞是指物的不定代詞all,little,few,much,及everything,anything,nothing等時:There is still much that can be done about it./Have you got everything that you need?
5) 先行詞是who時:Who that have seen him does not like him?
2. 不用that的場合如下:
1)非限制性定語從句中 Last night ,I saw a very good film,which was about the Long
March .
2)介詞放在關係代詞之前時 This is the man from whom I learnt the news
3)句中出現了that,或先行詞是that時 I have found that which I was looking for.
四、“介詞+關係代詞”用法
1. 介詞的確定應依據定語從句中短語的習慣性搭配,例如:Who is the girl with whom you just shook hands?(shake hands with…是習慣性搭配)
2. 介詞常受先行詞的制約(即介詞和先行詞的搭配),例如:He built a telescope through which he could study the skies.(through which 即through the telescope)
3. 當關係代詞作“動詞+介詞”固定短語的賓語時,此時因定短語中的介詞不能拆開移到關係代詞前。例如:This is the watch which you´re looking for./He is a kind of man whom you can safely depend on.
五、幾個名詞後的引導詞
1. situation後常用where,in which引導定語從句:Can you imagine a situation where/in
which you can use the word?
2. way(方式,方法)後常用in which或that或how引導定語從句,也可省略:Do you know the way(in which/that/how) he worked out the problem?
3. “the same+名詞”,“such+名詞”,“as+名詞”後通常用as引導定語從句。
例如:I have the same dictionary as you(have)./Such a book as you bought is not worth buying.
定語從句考點分析
1. The best work ______ luxun wrote and ______ I have read has been made into a film.
A.which;that B.that;× C.×;that D.×;×
析:如果兩個定語從句並列,關係代詞作賓語時前一句的可以省略,但後一句的不可省略,故應選C。
2. It was in 1969 ______ two Americans got to the moon by space ship.
It was 1969 ______ two Amerians got to the moon by space ship.
A.when B.which C.that D.×
析:第一句是強調時間in 1969,強調結構是“It was+強調部分+that句”,故應選C。第二句It是表時間的,先行詞1969在從句中作狀語,故選A。
3. Is this the house ______ Shakespeare was born?
A.at which B.which C.in which D.at where
析:觀察題目,空白處只有填in which或where才能表達“這是莎士比亞出生的房子嗎?”這一意思,故答案為C。
4. Is this house ______ Shakespeare was born?
A.where B.which C.in which D.at which
析:將此句變為陳述句;This house is ______ Shakespeare was born.顯然is後是一表語從句,只有選where(=the place where)才能表達“這是莎士比亞的出生地”這一意思,故答案為A。
5. In the dark street,there wasn’t a single person ______ she could turn for
help.
A.to whom B.of whom C.from whom D.that
析:“介詞+關係代詞”要考慮短語搭配或與先行搭配,這道題短語turn to有關,故
應選A。
6. The two things ______ they felt very proud were Jim´s gold watch and Della´s
hair.
A.about which B.of which C.in which D.for which
析:涉及be/feel proud of短語,故答案為B。
7. Have you ever asked him the reason ______ may explain his being late.
A.why B.that C.for which D.what
析:此題易誤選A、C,因為先行詞是the reason,但細觀察分析,定語從句缺少主語,所以答案是B。注意what不能引導定語從句。
8. Farming is difficult ______ there is no rain.
A.where B.in place C.that D.the place where
析:因為difficult是形容詞,故其後不是定語從句。這兒的空白處應填引導狀語從句where(=in the place where),全句表達“在沒有雨水的地方耕種困難”。這一意思,可見答案為A。
9. We need the same machine ______ in your factory.
A.which is being used B.as is being used
C.that is being used D.as it is being used
析:根據“the same+先行詞”後跟as引導定語從句的原則,可知答案為B。
10.______ the people,not things ______ are most important.
A.There are;who B.Those are;that C.It is;that D.It was;who
析:仔細觀察分析題目,可知只有C構成強調句才有成立。當我們要檢驗視其為強調
句的判斷是否正確時,只要將“It is (或was)…that”這三個詞去掉,剩下部分讀
起來正確無誤,則證明判斷是正確的,反之是錯誤的。此題如不填“It is…that”
三詞,句子是The people,not things are most important.語義完整正確,說明選
C是對的。
名詞從句、定語從句專練
1.______ surprised me most was the news ______ our team won.
A.That;that B.What;which C.What;that D.That;which
2.This is the only book ______ I want to read.
A.which B.that C.what D.as
3.The reason ______ I am so late is ______ the bus.
A. that;I didn´t catch B.×;that I missed
C.why;because I have missed D.×;because my not catching
4. The problem ______ has been completely settled.
A.which you thought B.that you thought
C.about which you thought it D.that you thought about
5. Is this the tape-recorder you wish ______?
A.to have it repaired B.to repair it
C.to have repaired D.repairing
6. The electric toy ______ last month has gone out of order.
A.I bought it for him B.which I bought to him
C.I bought for him D.that I bought to him
7. His head soon appeared out of one of the second storey windows,______ he oculd see nothing but tress.
A.frm which B.from where C.where D.from there
8. Every minute ______ full use of to study our lessons will do our students good.
A.which makes B.that is made C.that made D.what is made
9. Will it be two months ______ we can get another one?
A.that B.when C.before D.in which
10.After graduation we should go ______ our Party needs us most.
A.to the place which B.in which C.that D.where
11.There is a popular belief among parents ______ schools are no louger interested
in handwriting.
A.who B.whose C.that D.which
12.He lent me a lot of maney,______ I couldn’t buy the TV set.
A.with it B.for which C.without which D.by which
13.Water power stations are bulit ______ big water falls.
A.which are B.which has C.where there have D.where there are
14.The direction ______ a force acts can be changed.
A.how B.which C.towards D.×
15.Was it yesterday ______ you received the letter from her?
A.when B.which C.on which D.that
16.In the end she decided to sell the house ______ windows were almost broken.
A.which B.that C.of which D.whose
17.That ______ you lent me wasn’t _____ I wanted.
A.that;all B.which;all C.that;what D.which;that
18.Each time ______ they met,they would talk long hours together.
A.during B.which C.where D.×
19.This is the third week ______ for the rubbish.
A.that they didn’t come B.they aren’t coming
C.they haven’t come D.when they haven’t come
20.On the desk ______ a Chinese brush ______ he had made drawing.
A.lay;with which B.lies;by which C.laid;in which D.lay;on which
21.We´ll never forget the days ______ we spent on the seashore.
A.during which B.in which C.when D.×
22.The beautiful church ______ we see there is very famous.
A.the tower which B.of whose tower C.the tower of which D.of which tower
23.The 11th Asian Games, ______ China won 183 gold medals,was held in the autumn
of 1990.
A.which B.that C.at which D.at that
24.The only thing ______ is wrong with this is ______ a friend of mine said to me
the other day.
A.which;what B.what;that C.that;what D.that;which
25.Who is he man ______ is talking with John?
A.which B.who C.what D.that
26.The farmer uses wood to build a house ______ to store grains.
A.with which B.to where C.which D.in which
27.I really don´t know ______ I had my pocket picked.
A.where was it that B.it was where that
C.where it was that D.was it where that
28.He insisted that he ______ right in doing that.
A.should be B.was C.would be D.is
29.——Have you heard from Mary recently?
——Yes,she said she was thinking ______ she should do next.
A.that B.of what C.what D.how
30.Can you guess ______?
A.who that man is B.who is that man
C.what is that man D.whom that man is
31.Tom told his aunt that he ______ what he was doing during the time when he was
in the country.
A.had just asked B.had just been asked C.was just asked D.just asked
32.The reason ______ she gave for not being present was ______ the heavy snow
prevented her coming.
A.×;because B.why;because C.×;that D.why;whether
33.Air is to us ______ water is to fish.
A.what B.that C.which D.is that
34.The free ticket will be sent to ______ comes first.
A.whoever B.whomever C.whosever D.no matter who
35.______ is still unknown when the president will make a public speech.
A.It B.That C.He D.What
36.I don´t know ______ is ______ I was born.
A.that;when B.that;what C.that;where D.what;where
37.It is generally considered unwise to give a child ______ he or she wants.
A.however B.whatever C.whichever D.whenever
38.Father made a promise ______ I passed the examination he would buy me a bicycle.
A.that B.if C.whether D.that if
39.As many nembers ______ were present agreed to the plan.
A.who B.that C.which D.as
40.______ can be seen from his face,he is quite satisfied.
A.That B.It C.Which D.As
名詞從句、定語從句專練答案
1-5 C B B D C 6-10 C B B C D 11-15 C C D D D
16-20 D B D C A 21-25 D C C C D 26-30 D C B B A
31-35 B C A A A 36-40 C B D D D

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