並列

並列是電力系統或發電設備按規定的技術要求,相互連線在一起進行同步運行的操作。

概述

兩個或兩個以上互相連線而又屬於同一層次並具有相同句法功能的語言結構叫做並列結構。並列結構由並列連詞、並列詞組、連線性副詞或標點符號將句法功能相同的平行的詞、詞組、或分句連線起來。並列結構最顯著的特點是對稱。例如:
--She is intelligent but lazy.
(並列連詞but連線兩個形容詞。)
--They walk up and down, smiling.
(並列連詞and連線兩個副詞。)
--You can walk either across the gravel or down the drive.
(並列連詞either─or連線兩個介詞短語。)
--We both shrugged and laughed.
(並列連詞both─and連線兩個動詞。)
--I’ve asked him to come this evening, or (to) phone us tomorrow.
(並列連詞or連線兩個動詞不定式。)
--His job consisted of displaying sales items, and helping the salesgirls at rush hours.
(並列連詞and連線兩個動詞-ing形式。)
--All the villagers helped to rebuild the houses damaged by the storm or washed away by the floods.
(並列連詞or連線兩個動詞-ed形式。)
--They feel both anxiety and joy.
(並列連詞both─and連線兩個名詞。)
--We don’t know who he is or where he is.
(並列連詞or連線兩個名詞從句。)
--He is clever, but on the other hand, he makes many mistakes.
(並列連詞but 和並列詞組on the other hand連線兩個分句。)
--John seemed to have no desire to go there; besides, his clothes were not good enough.
(分號及連線性副詞besides連線兩個分句。)
--Understanding is a two-way operation; learning doesn’t consist in being an empty receptacle.
(分號連線兩個分句。)

相關詞條

並列連詞(Coordinators)

用來連線平行的詞、詞組或分句的詞,叫做並列連詞。
1 並列連詞的含義
a. 添加或補充
常用來表示添加或補充的詞語有:and, also, besides, both─and, not─either, equally, furthermore, in addition, as well as, in the same way, likewise, moreover, neither, nor, neither─nor, not only─but(also), on the other hand, similarly, so, what’s more 等。這一類連詞表示所連線的並列成分在意義上是對前一項目作增補和引伸,包括肯定意義的引伸和否定意義的引
伸。例如:
--If you don’t go, I won’t go either.
--This is a political as well as an economic question.
--She can neither speak nor read French.
neither, nor, so位於句首表示同樣看法時,引入的分句要倒裝。例如:
--I was not happy, neither were they.
--I will not do it, nor consider it.
--If your brother Adam can do it, so can I.
b. 轉折
常用來表示轉折的詞語有:but, again, by comparison, by contrast, conversely, however, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, only, or (else), otherwise, still, though, after all, whereas, while, yet等。例如:
--A dictator, by contrast, may rule with an iron hand.
--I don’t like this one; give me that instead.
--We must be early; otherwise we won’t get a seat.
c. 結果
常用來表示結果的詞語有:accordingly, as a consequence/ in consequence, as a result, consequently, for this/ that reason, hence, so, therefore, thus等。例如:
--He was too sick to stay. Accordingly, we sent him home.
--We hadn’t enough money to pay our bus fare, and as a consequence, we had to walk.
--He studied hard, thus he got high marks.
d. 選擇
常用來表示選擇的詞語有:or, either─or, whether─or, rather─than等。例如:
--Is it green or blue?
--Either Sylvia or her sister will be staying with us.
--His opinion, whether right or wrong, should be taken into consideration.
--He would rather walk than drive to work.
either─or及whether─or所表示的選擇概念比單用or為強。whether─or構成的並列結構一般只能擔任句子的從屬成分;而either─or和and, or一樣,可以連線兩個以上並列的獨立分句。
例如:
--Either the vice-president has resigned through ill-health, or has died in office, or has succeeded to the presidency.
e. 原因
表示因果概念的並列連詞只有一個for,是對前一分句補充說明理由或推斷原因,for後必須重複主語。for所引導的分句只能置於句末,要用逗號隔開。常用於書面語。
--It took us some time to get there, for it was a long way to go.
--The days are short, for it is now December.
--We rarely stay in hotels, for we can’t afford it.
f. 強調或舉例
常用來表示強調或舉例的詞語有:above all, for example/ instance, indeed, in fact, in other words, in particular, namely, specially等。例如:
--A lot of people here, for example, John, would rather have coffee.
--He became, in other words, a great hero.
--Only one boy was absent, namely Harry.
g. 順序
常用來表示順序的詞語有:afterwards, to begin/ start with, finally, first, last, later, meanwhile, next, then, subsequently等。例如:
--To begin with, there must be close co-operation between them.
--He laughs best that laughs last. (誰笑得最後就笑得最好。)
--The train won’t leave for an hour. Meanwhile we can have lunch.
h. 對照
表示對照的詞語有not---but。例如:
--This tool is not made of iron but of steel.
--The chairs were not polished but painted.
--It is not that I’m unwilling to go with you, but (that) I’m busy now.
i. 總結
常用來表示總結的詞語有:all in all, altogether, to conclude, in conclusion, overall, to summarize, to sum up, then, therefore 等。例如:
--All in all, the party was pleasant.
--To sum up, we can say that this novel is a failure.
--He worked day and night, and therefore he was able to buy the sports car.
2 並列連詞的句法特徵
a. 並列連詞一般置於被連線的兩個分句之間,其前有逗號與第一分句隔開。例如:
--He not only washed the car, but polished it as well.
b. 有些連線性副詞或並列詞組位置比較靈活,須注意標點符號的使用。例如:
--He slipped and broke his leg. As a result, he will have to be away from school for two or three months.
--He slipped and broke his leg. He, as a result, will have to be away from school for two or three months.
--He slipped and broke his leg. He will, as a result, have to be away from school for two or three months.
c. 有時,兩個並列連詞可一起使用。例如:
--It is a simple game and yet interesting enough to be played with skill.
--We must protect children, but equally we must leave them alone.
--Sometimes she is very friendly; then again, she can be very unfriendly.
and的語義內涵(Semantic implications of and)

並列連詞and連線兩個分句時的意義

--He is Jack of all trades and master of none. (他樣樣都會,門門不精。)
(表示意義增補)
--She was unhappy about it, and yet she did as she was told.
(表示轉折)
--Bob often gets up late and has no time for breakfast.
(表示結果)
--He closed the window, turned off the light and left the room.
(表示順序)
--Go straight on and you’ll see a church.
(表示條件)
--She tried hard and (yet) she failed.
(表示讓步)
--Robert is talkative and David is reserved.
(表示對比)
--George can’t go with us, and that’s too bad.
(表示評註)
--He did it and did it well.
(表示遞進)
--And as for us, we are fortunate.
(表示乘上啟下:於是,接著,因此)
並列分句中的省略(ellipsis in coordinated clauses)
省略既是避免重複的手段,也是句子或分句之間的一種連線手段。在以and,but,or或then等連詞連線、或分號所連線的並列句中,常有省略現象。

後一分句的省略

後一分句與前一分句的相同部分經常被省略,例如:
--When she recognized Morris she went pale, then (she) blushed.
(省略主語)
--I work in a factory and my brother (works) in a company.
(省略謂語)
--They won’t go but I will (go).
(省略主動詞)
--Either Sally must be responsible for the matter or we’ll be (responsible for the matter).
(省略謂語的主要部分)
--Someone may be killed or (may be) seriously injured.
(省略謂語中的情態動詞及助動詞)
--One of its sides was painted black and the other (sides were painted) white.
(省略主語和謂語)
--She was poor but (she was) honest.
(省略主語和系動詞)
--Perhaps he can’t be a good artist and (he) will never be able to (be so).
(省略主語和不定式短語)
--John was the winner in 1997, and Bob (was the winner) in 1995.
(省略系動詞和主語補足語
--You aren’t a member of the club, but your sister is (a member of the club).
(省略主語補足語)
--The coal output of the region went up by 10%; the steel output (of the region) went up by 7%.
(省略作後置定語的介詞短語)
2 前一分句的省略
前一分句與後一分句的相同部分也經常被省略,例如:
--Either your team (will win the game) or our team will win the game.
(省略謂語及賓語)
--Linda likes (drinking), but her husband hates, drinking.
(省略作動詞賓語的動名詞)
--The ship sailed up (the river) and a raft floated down the river.
(省略介詞賓語)
--He is (an officer in the army), and his son will also be, an officer in the army.
(省略主語補足語)
--Mr. Brown teaches (in Oxford), and his son studies, in Oxford.
(省略作狀語的介詞短語)

相關詞條

相關搜尋

熱門詞條